Index – CCNP Enterprise Design ENSLD 300-420 Official Cert Guide: Designing Cisco Enterprise Networks

Index

Numbers

4G technologies, WAN, 277, 281282

5G technologies, WAN, 277, 281282

6RD tunnels, 70

6to4 tunnels, 6970

10 Gigabit Ethernet design rules, 224225

10GBASE-ER, enterprise campus LAN, 261

10GBASE-LR, enterprise campus LAN, 261

10GBASE-SR, enterprise campus LAN, 261

20/80 rule, 244

100 Mbps Fast Ethenet. See Fast Ethernet design rules

100BASE-FX Fast Ethernet, 222

100BASE-T4 Fast Ethernet, 222

100BASE-TX Fast Ethernet, 222

1000BASE-CX Gigabit Ethernet over Coaxial Cable, 224

1000BASE-LX Long-Wavelength Gigabit Ethernet, 223

1000BASE-SX Short-Wavelength Gigabit Ethernet, 224

1000BASE-T Gigabit Ethernet over UTP, 224

A

AAAA requests, IPv6 addresses, 6061

ABR (Area Border Routers)

OSPFv2, 139

OSPFv3, 145

access

Internet, DIA, 360

RBAC, 355, 356

SD-Access

architecture, 324325

assurance, 324

automation, 324, 328329

benefits of, 324

DNA Center, 324325

integration, 324

ISE, 330332

policies, 324

wireless SD-Access, 329331

SD-Access fabric, 324, 325

borders, 334

control plane, 326, 327, 333334

data plane, 326, 328

fabric sites, 333

fabric wireless, 339340

INFRA VRF, 339

large site considerations, 337, 338339

medium site considerations, 337, 338

multicast packets, 340

OTT wireless, 339

overlay design, 332333

overlay networks, 325, 326327, 332333

policy plane, 326

scalability, 336339

segmentation, 334335

small site considerations, 337338

underlay networks, 325326

very small site considerations, 336, 337

VN, 335336

wired/wireless considerations, 332

WLC, 339

access layer (hierarchical network models), 215, 216

best practices, 245249

building access layer, 248249, 261

hybrid LAN access layer, 247248

Layer 2 access layer

traditional, 245246, 248

updated (VSS), 246247, 248

Layer 3 access layer, 246247, 248

stacking switches, 249

accounting

management, networks, 188

NetFlow, 195

acknowledgment packets, EIGRP, 111

ACL (Access Control Lists), SD-WAN, 362363

active route state, EIGRP, 108

addressing

ARP, IPv4 address assignments, 3435

global addressing

global aggregatable addressing, 55

inside global addresses, 15, 16

outside global addresses, 16

SLAAC globally unique addressing, 6263

unicast addresses, IPv6, 54

global aggregatable addressing, IPv6, 55

inside global addresses, 15, 16

inside local addresses, 15, 16

IPv4, 1011, 13

address assignments, recommended practices, 30

AND logical operation, 19

ARP address assignments, 3435

BOOTP address assignments, 30

broadcast addresses, 13, 14

classes, 1113

design, 2329

DHCP address assignments, 3032

DNS address assignments, 3234

IPv4-compatible IPv6 addresses, 55

IPv4-mapped IPv6 addresses, 51, 56

multicast addresses, 13, 14

name resolution, address assignments, 2930

NAT, 1416

octet conversions, 11

partly-linked IPv4 addresses, IPv6, 6667

private addressing, 14

private IPv4 networks, 2627

public IPv4 networks, 2627

subnet masks, 17

subnetting, 1617, 23

unicast addresses, 1314

VLSM, 1923

wholly-linked IPv4 addresses, IPv6, 67

IPv6

AAAA requests, 6061

allocations, 5253, 6667

anycast addressing, 56, 58

assigning, 6163

autoconfiguration schemes, 63

design, 6566

ICMPv6, 59

IPv4-compatible IPv6 addresses, 55

IPv4-mapped IPv6 addresses, 51, 56

loopback addressing, 53

multicast addressing, 5658

name resolution, 6061

ND protocol, 5960

path MTU discovery, 61

prefixes, 5153, 58

representation of, 5051

unicast addresses, 5354, 58

link-local addresses

IPv6, 54

SLAAC globally unique addressing, 6263

SLAAC link-local addressing, 62, 63

local addressing

inside local addresses, 15, 16

outside local addresses, 16

unique local addressing, 55

loopback addressing

IPv6, 53

VLSM, 21

multicast addressing, 180181, 187188

NET addressing, IS-IS, 116117

outside global addresses, 16

outside local addresses, 16

private addressing, IPv6, 66

SLAAC

globally unique addresses, 6263

link-local addresses, 62, 63

unicast addresses

global aggregatable addressing, 55

link-local addressing, 54

unique local addressing, 55

unique local addressing, IPv6, 55

administrative distance

BGP, 153

routing protocols, 99100

AF packet-drop precedence values, 9

agents, SNMP, 189

aggregation

links, LACP, 226

ports

EtherChannel, 226

PAgP, 226227

aggregator attribute, BGP, 156

allocating IPv6 addresses, 52

partly-linked IPv4 addresses, 6667

per location/type, 67

prefixes, 5253

wholly-linked IPv4 addresses, 67

AND logical operation, IPv4 addressing, 19

anycast addressing, IPv6, 56, 58

API (Application Programming Interfaces), 376377, 385

Application layer (OSI layer 7), 434

Application layer (TCP/IP), 435

application requirements, network design, 244245

application-aware routing, SD-WAN, 364

area design

OSPFv2, 137138

OSPFv3, 144145

ARP (Address Resolution Protocol), IPv4 address assignments, 3435

ASBR (Autonomous System Boundary Routers)

OSPFv2, 139

OSPFv3, 145

AS-Path attribute, BGP, 155, 157

assigning

IPv4 addresses

ARP, 3435

BOOTP, 30

DHCP, 3032

DNS, 3234

name resolution, 2930

recommended practices, 30

IPv6 addressing, 61

DHCPv6, 63

DHCPv6 Lite, 63

manual configurations, 62

SLAAC globally unique addressing, 6263

SLAAC link-local addressing, 62, 63

assurance, SD-Access, 324

atomic aggregate attribute, BGP, 156, 157

authentication. See also security

GLBP, 255

IS-IS, IS-IS, 120

OSPFv2, 143

autoconfiguration schemes, IPv6 addressing, 63

automatic tunneling, IPv6, 69

6RD tunnels, 70

6to4 tunnels, 6970

ISATAP tunnels, 70

automation

API, 376377

CRUD, 379380, 385

data models, 378379

evolution of, 377

gRPC, 377

IETF, 387

JSON, 377378

model-driven programmability stacks, 379

NETCONF, 377, 380381, 383

data stores, 383

<hello> operations, 383384

models, 383

protocol operations, 384

RESTCONF comparisons, 385386

OpenConfig, 387

REST, 377, 379380

RESTCONF, 377, 380381, 384

API, CRUD operations, 385

NETCONF comparisons, 385386

URI, 380381

SD-Access, 324, 328329

SOAP, 377

telemetry

cadence-based telemetry, 388

model-driven telemetry, 387, 388389

policy-driven telemetry, 388

streaming telemetry data, 387388

XML, 378

YANG, 380382, 387

auto-RP, 186

availability

Internet edge, 309

network applications, 261

WAN

high availability, 301, 303, 309

system availability, 303304

B

backbone routers

OSPFv2, 139

OSPFv3, 145

BackboneFast, 231, 232

backbones. See core layer

backups, WAN, 309

bandwidth

routing protocols, 101, 109

WAN, 302303

BE QoS (Best Effort QoS), 311

best practices

access layer, 248249

network design

access layer, 245249

campus layer, 251252

campus networks, 244

core layer, 250

distribution layer, 249250

enterprise LAN, 244

BFD (Bidirectional Forwarding Detection), 167168, 363

BGP (Border Gateway Protocol), 95, 147

administrative distance, 153

best path order, 159

characteristics of, 160161

CIDR, 147148

confederations, 152153

decision process, 158159

eBGP, 149, 160

iBGP, 149152

load balancing, 159160

MP-BGP, 65, 150

Multipath Load Sharing, 160

neighbors, 148149

path attributes, 150, 153

aggregator attribute, 156

AS-Path attribute, 155, 157

atomic aggregate attribute, 156, 157

community attribute, 155, 157

discretionary attributes, 153

local preference attribute, 154, 157

mandatory attributes, 153

MED attribute, 155156, 157

next-hop attribute, 153, 157

optional attributes, 153

origin attribute, 154155, 157

weight attribute, 156157

well-known attributes, 153

QPPB, 150

route manipulation, 159160

transit traffic, 167

BIDIR-PIM (Bidrectional PIM), 186, 187

binary number conversions, 439440

to decimal numbers, 441

decimal numbers to binary numbers, 442443

to hexadecimal numbers, 440

hexadecimal numbers to binary numbers, 441

blocking state (STP), 228

BOOTP, IPv4 address assignments, 30

bootstrapping, IOS XE routers (SD-WAN), 355

borders, SD-Access fabric, 334

BPDU Filter, 232

BPDU Guard, 231, 232, 249

bridges, STP, 228

broadcast addresses, IPv4, 13, 14

broadcast storms, 258

budgeting time, exam preparation, 398

building access layer, 248249, 261

building access switches, 262

C

cabling

CAT 5e cabling, 228

CAT 6a cabling, 228

coaxial cable, 1000BASE-CX Gigabit Ethernet over Coaxial Cable, 224

copper/UTP cabling, 227

dark fiber cabling, WAN, 280281

fiber cabling

multimode fiber cabling, 227

single-mode fiber cabling, 227

multimode fiber cabling, 227

single-mode fiber cabling, 227

UTP cabling, 224, 227

cadence-based telemetry, 388

campus layer (hierarchical network models), best practices, 251252

campus networks

design

application requirements, 244245

best practices, 244

enterprise campus LAN, 260261

Ethernet design rules, 221

10 Gigabit Ethernet, 224225

EtherChannel, 226227

Fast Ethernet, 221222

Gigabit Ethernet, 222224

hierarchical network models, 212, 213, 216

access layer, 215, 216

benefits of, 212213

collapsed core networks, 218219

core layer, 213214, 215216

distribution layer, 214215, 216

end-to-end VLAN design model, 220221

hub-and-spoke networks, 218219

local VLAN design model, 220221

NAC, 216

redundancy links, 220

redundancy triangles, 219220

routed hierarchical design, 217

switched hierarchical design, 216217

VSS, 217218

increasing availability, 257258

ISL, 262263

media comparisons, 227

QoS, 262263

small campus network design, 262

STP, 228

BackboneFast, 231, 232

blocking state, 228

BPDU Filter, 232

BPDU Guard, 231, 232, 249

disabled state, 229

FHRP alignment, 230

forwarding state, 228

learning state, 228

listening state, 228

Loop Guard, 231, 232, 248

metrics, 229

MST and, 230

PortFast, 230, 232, 248

PVST+229

Rapid PVST+229–230

Root Guard, 231, 232, 249

toolkit, 230232

UDLD, 233

UplinkFast, 230, 232

CAR (Committed Access Rates), 312, 313

CAT 5e cabling, 228

CAT 6a cabling, 228

CBWFQ (Cloud-Based WFQ), QoS queuing traffic, 314

CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol), 198199, 200

CGMP (Cisco Group Management Protocol), 183

chapter-ending review tools, exam preparation, 402

CIDR, BGP, 147148

class A addresses, IPv4, 12

class B addresses, IPv4, 1213

class C addresses, IPv4, 13

class D addresses, IPv4, 13

class E addresses, IPv4, 13

classful routing protocols, 9798

classifying traffic, QoS, 312

classless routing protocols, 9798

client servers, network requirements, 244, 245

clock (exam preparation), watching the, 398

clusters, 151152

coaxial cable, 1000BASE-CX Gigabit Ethernet over Coaxial Cable, 224

collapsed core networks, 218219

communication (layered), 435436

community attribute, BGP, 155, 157

confederations, BGP, 152153

configuration management, networks, 188

configuring

autoconfiguration schemes, IPv6 address assignments, 63

manual configurations

IPv6 address assignments, 62

IPv6 tunneling strategies, 69

congestion management, QoS queuing traffic, 313314

connectivity (Internet), WAN, 307309

control plane (SD-Access fabric), 326, 327, 333334

Control plane (SD-WAN), 351, 352, 356357

controller redundancy, SD-WAN, 358

converting numbers, 436

binary numbers

to decimal numbers, 441

decimal numbers to binary numbers, 442443

to hexadecimal numbers, 440

hexadecimal numbers to binary numbers, 441

decimal numbers

to binary numbers, 442443

binary numbers to decimal numbers, 441

to hexadecimal numbers, 437438

hexadecimal numbers to decimal numbers, 439

hexadecimal numbers

to binary numbers, 441

binary numbers to hexadecimal numbers, 440

to decimal numbers, 439

decimal numbers to hexadecimal numbers, 437438

converting octets, IPv4 addressing, 11

copper/UTP cabling, 227

core layer (hierarchical network models), 213214, 215216, 250

core switches, 250251

cost

network applications, 261

routing protocols, 102

WAN, 275, 301

counting to infinity loop-prevention scheme, 105

CQ (Custom Queuing), QoS queuing traffic, 314

CRUD (Create, Retrieve, Update and Delete), 379380, 385

customer edge

Ethernet handoffs, 279

SD-WAN, 282283

customizing Pearson test prep software, 400401

D

dark fiber cabling, WAN, 280281

data analyzers, NetFlow, 195, 196197

data centers, network requirements, 244, 245

data encoding

JSON, 377378

XML, 378

Data Link layer (OSI layer 2), 432

data models, automation, 378379

data plane (SD-Access fabric), 326, 328

Data plane (SD-WAN), 351, 352

data records, NetFlow, 196

data traffic

20/80 rule, 244

classifying, QoS, 312

marking, QoS, 312

optimization, streaming telemetry data, 388

policing, QoS, 313

prioritization, network management, 190

queuing, QoS, 313

CBWFQ, 314

congestion management, 313314

CQ, 314

LQ, 314

PQ, 314

WFQ, 314

shaping, QoS, 312313

WAN design, 301

datagrams (packets), 4

acknowledgment packets, EIGRP, 111

DBD packets, OSPFv2, 136

hello packets

EIGRP, 110

OSPFv2, 135

loss tolerance, WAN, 301

LSAck packets, OSPFv2, 136

LSR packets, OSPFv2, 136

LSU packets, OSPFv2, 136

magic packets, 228

multicast packets, SD-Access fabric, 340

query packets, EIGRP, 111

reply packets, EIGRP, 111

update packets, EIGRP, 111

DBD packets, OSPFv2, 136

decimal number conversions

to binary numbers, 442443

binary numbers to decimal numbers, 441

to hexadecimal numbers, 437438

hexadecimal numbers to decimal numbers, 439

delay parameter, routing protocols, 103, 109

dense IP multicast, 184

deployment models

IPv6, 68, 73, 7576

dual-stack deployment model, 73

hybrid deployment model, 74

service block deployment model, 75

WAN

backups, 309

failovers, 310

Hybrid WAN, 304, 306307

Internet WAN, 304,

MPLS WAN, 304, 305306

multi-homed WAN, 305, 306

redundancy, 304305, 309

SD-WAN, 309

single-homed WAN, 305

designing

areas

OSPFv2, 137138

OSPFv3, 144145

campus networks

application requirements, 244245

best practices, 244

EIGRP, 111

end-to-end QoS policies, 312

Ethernet design rules, 221

10 Gigabit Ethernet, 224225

EtherChannel, 226227

Fast Ethernet, 221222

Gigabit Ethernet, 222224

hierarchical IP address networks, 2526

hierarchical network models, 213, 216

access layer, 215, 216

collapsed core networks, 218219

core layer, 213214, 215216

distribution layer, 214215, 216

end-to-end VLAN design model, 220221

hub-and-spoke networks, 218219

local VLAN design model, 220221

redundancy links, 220

redundancy triangles, 219220

routed hierarchical design, 217

switched hierarchical design, 216217

VSS, 217218

IPv4 addressing

creating plans, 27

goals of, 2324

hierarchical IP address networks, 2526

planning for future use, 24

private IPv4 networks, 2627

public IPv4 networks, 2627

route summarization, 2425

subnet case study, 2729

IPv6 addressing, 65

for Enterprise, 66

planning for, 65

private IPv6 addressing, 66

route summarization, 6566

IS-IS area design, 117119

QoS, end-to-end policies, 312

SD-Access fabric

borders, 334

control plane, 333334

fabric sites, 333

fabric wireless, 339340

INFRA VRF, 339

large site considerations, 337, 338339

medium site considerations, 337, 338

multicast packets, 340

OTT wireless, 339

overlay design, 332333

scalability, 336339

segmentation, 334335

small site considerations, 337338

very small site considerations, 336, 337

VN, 335336

WLC, 339

SD-WAN, 352

control plane, 356357

DIA, 360

high availability, 357358

LAN, 359360

redundancy, 357358

security, 361363

vEdge DHCP server, 360

WAN, 275

backups, 309

bandwidth, 302303

cost, 301

data traffic, 301

downtime, 301

failovers, 310

high availability, 301, 303, 309

Hybrid WAN, 304, 306307

Internet connectivity, 307309

Internet WAN, 304

manageability, 301

methodologies, 300301

MPLS WAN, 304, 305306

multi-homed WAN, 305, 306

packet loss tolerance, 301

performance, 301

principles of, 301

redundancy, 304305, 309

reliability, 302

remote sites, 308309

response time, 301, 302

scalability, 301

SD-WAN, 309

security, 301

single-homed WAN, 305

standards/regulations, 301

system availability, 303304

throughput, 301, 302

video traffic, 301

voice traffic, 301

Destination Address field

IPv4 headers, 6

IPv6 headers, 50

DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol), IPv4 address assignments, 3032

DHCPv6 (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol version 6), IPv6 addressing, 63

DHCPv6 Lite, IPv6 addressing, 63

DIA (Direct Internet Access), SD-WAN, 360

dial-in mode, subscriptions, 390

dial-out mode, subscriptions, 390391

DiffServ QoS, 311

direct encapsulation (IPsec), 286287

disabled state (STP), 229

discretionary attributes, BGP, 153

distance vector routing protocols, 9596, 97

distribution layer (hierarchical network models), 214215, 216, 249250, 261

DITKA questions, exam preparation, 402

DMVPN (Dynamic Multipoint VPN), 287288

DMZ (Demilitarized Zones), 276

DNA Center, 324325, 328329, 330331

DNS (Domain Name System)

AAAA requests, 6061

DHCP, 3334

IPv4 address assignments, 3234

name resolution, 32

RR, 3233

DNS64, 71

downtime, WAN, 301

DR (Designated Routers)

IS-IS, 117

OSPFv2, 139140

PIM DR, 185

DS (Differentiated Services), DSCP

AF packet-drop precedence values, 9

IP DSCP values, 910

IP precedence values, 89

ToS field (IPv4 headers), 810

DSCP (Differentiated Services Codepoint)

AF packet-drop precedence values, 9

IP DSCP values, 910

IP precedence values, 89

QoS, 311

ToS field (IPv4 headers), 810

DUAL, EIGRP, 107108

dual-stack deployment model, IPv6, 73

dual-stack migration strategy, 68

DWDM (Dark Wavelength-Division Multiplexing), 277, 279280

dynamic NAT, 15, 16

dynamic routes

list of, 94

static routes versus, 9394

E

earplugs, exam preparation, 398

eBGP (External Border Gateway Protocol), 149, 160

edge modules, WAN, 275276

EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocols), 9495

EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol), 95, 96, 97, 105106

acknowledgment packets, 111

active route state, 108

characteristics of, 115

components of, 106108

designing, 111

DUAL, 107108

FD, 107, 108

feasability conditions, 107

feasible successors, 107

hello packets, 109, 110

for IPv4, 113

IPv6, 64

for IPv6 networks, 113115

metrics, 109110

neighbor discovery/recovery, 106107

passive route state, 108

protocol-dependent modules, 106

query packets, 111

RD, 107

reply packets, 111

route redistribution, 166

RTP, 107

stub routers, 111112

stuck-in-active route state, 108

successors, 107

timers, 109

update packets, 111

updates, 109

variance command, 113

end-to-end QoS policies, designing, 312

end-to-end VLAN design model, 220221

Enterprise, IPv6 address design, 66

enterprise campus LAN, 260261

enterprise edge

DMZ, 276

network requirements, 244, 245

SP edge, 276

WAN, 275276

enterprise LAN design

application requirements, 244245

best practices, 244

Ethernet design rules, 221

10 Gigabit Ethernet, 224225

EtherChannel, 226227

Fast Ethernet, 221222

Gigabit Ethernet, 222224

hierarchical network models, 212, 213, 216

access layer, 215, 216

benefits of, 212213

collapsed core networks, 218219

core layer, 213214, 215216

distribution layer, 214215, 216

end-to-end VLAN design model, 220221

hub-and-spoke networks, 218219

local VLAN design model, 220221

NAC, 216

redundancy links, 220

redundancy triangles, 219220

routed hierarchical design, 217

switched hierarchical design, 216217

VSS, 217218

STP, 228

BackboneFast, 231, 232

blocking state, 228

BPDU Filter, 232

BPDU Guard, 231, 232, 249

disabled state, 229

FHRP alignment, 230

forwarding state, 228

learning state, 228

listening state, 228

Loop Guard, 231, 232, 248

metrics, 229

MST and, 230

PortFast, 230, 232, 248

PVST+229

Rapid PVST+229–230

Root Guard, 231, 232, 249

toolkit, 230232

UDLD, 233

UplinkFast, 230, 232

EtherChannel, 226

LACP, 226

MEC, 246

MultiChassis EtherChannels, 339

PAgP, 226227

port aggregation, 226

static persistance, 226

Ethernet

10 Gigabit Ethernet design rules, 224225

customer edge, Ethernet handoffs, 279

EtherChannel, 226

LACP, 226

MEC, 246

MultiChassis EtherChannels, 339

PAgP, 226227

port aggregation, 226

static persistance, 226

Fast Ethernet design rules, 221222

100BASE-FX Fast Ethernet, 222

100BASE-T4 Fast Ethernet, 222

100BASE-TX Fast Ethernet, 222

Gigabit Ethernet design rules, 222223

1000BASE-CX Gigabit Ethernet over Coaxial Cable, 224

1000BASE-LX Long-Wavelength Gigabit Ethernet, 223

1000BASE-SX Short-Wavelength Gigabit Ethernet, 224

1000BASE-T Gigabit Ethernet over UTP, 224

LAN design rules, 221

10 Gigabit Ethernet, 224225

EtherChannel, 226227

Fast Ethernet, 221222

Gigabit Ethernet, 222224

Layer 3 to Layer 2 mapping, 181182

Metro Ethernet, WAN, 277, 278279

PoE, 227228

POE+228

UPOE, 228

UPOE+228

WoL, 228

exams

preparing for

chapter-ending review tools, 402

DITKA questions, 402

exam day preparations, 398399

final study/review, 402

Pearson IT Certification test engine, 399402

updating, 401402

exterior gateway protocols. See EGP

Extranet VPN, 285

F

failovers, WAN, 310

Fast Ethernet design rules, 221222

100BASE-FX Fast Ethernet, 222

100BASE-T4 Fast Ethernet, 222

100BASE-TX Fast Ethernet, 222

fault management, networks, 188

FCAPS, network management, 188

FD (Feasible Distance), EIGRP, 107, 108

feasability conditions, EIGRP, 107

feasible successors, EIGRP, 107

FHRP (First-Hop Resiliency Protocol), STP alignment, 230

fiber cabling

multimode fiber cabling, 227

single-mode fiber cabling, 227

filtering routes, 166167

final study/review, exam preparation, 402

Flags field (IPv4 headers), 5

flat routing protocols, 97

flat topologies, IS-IS, 118

Flexible NetFlow, 197

flow collector engines, NetFlow, 195, 196

Flow Label field (IPv6 headers), 49

forwarding

NSF, 168

VRF, 168

forwarding state (STP), 228

Fragment Offset field (IPv4 headers), 5

fragmentation, IPv4, 10

full-mesh networks, 257

G

GETVPN (Group Encrypted Transport VPN), 291

Gigabit Ethernet design rules, 222223

10 Gigabit Ethernet design rules, 224225

1000BASE-CX Gigabit Ethernet over Coaxial Cable, 224

1000BASE-LX Long-Wavelength Gigabit Ethernet, 223

1000BASE-SX Short-Wavelength Gigabit Ethernet, 224

1000BASE-T Gigabit Ethernet over UTP, 224

GLBP (Global Load Balancing Protocol), 255

global addressing

global aggregatable addressing, IPv6, 55

inside global addresses, 15, 16

IPv6, SLAAC globally unique addressing, 6263

outside global addresses, 16

SLAAC globally unique addressing, 6263

unicast addresses, IPv6, 54

global aggregatable addressing, IPv6, 55

GPRS (General Packet Radio Service), 281

GR (Graceful Restart), 168

GRE (Generic Route Encapsulation), 291

GRE tunneling, 69

group ID field (IPv6 multicast addressing), 57

gRPC (Google RPC), 377

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications), 281

H

headend redundancy, SD-WAN, 358

Header Checksum field (IPv4 headers), 6

headers

IPv4 headers, 5

Destination Address field, 6

fields, descriptions of, 57

fields, summary of, 67

Flags field, 5

Fragment Offset field, 5

Header Checksum field, 6

Identification field, 5

IHL field, 5

IP Options field, 6

Padding field, 6

Protocol field, 6

Source Address field, 6

Time To Live field, 5

ToS field, 5, 710

Total Length field, 5

Version field, 5

IPv6 headers, 49, 50

Destination Address field, 50

Flow Label field, 49

format of, 49

Hop Limit field, 50

Next Header field, 49

Payload Length field, 49

Source Address field, 50

Traffic Class field, 49

Version field, 49

RTP header compression, 315

VXLAN GPO headers, 328

<hello> operations, NETCONF, 383384

hello packets

EIGRP, 109, 110

OSPFv2, 135

hexadecimal numbers, 436437

converting

to binary numbers, 441

binary numbers to hexadecimal numbers, 440

to decimal numbers, 439

decimal numbers to hexadecimal numbers, 437438

representation, 437

hierarchical IP address networks, planning for, 2526

hierarchical network models, 212, 213, 216

access layer, 215, 216

best practices, 245249

building access layer, 248249

benefits of, 212213

campus layer, best practices, 251252

collapsed core networks, 218219

core layer, 213214, 215216, 250

distribution layer, 214215, 216, 249250

end-to-end VLAN design model, 220221

hub-and-spoke networks, 218219

local VLAN design model, 220221

NAC, 216

redundancy

links, 220

triangles, 219220

routed hierarchical design, 217

switched hierarchical design, 216217

VSS, 217218

hierarchical routing protocols, 97

hierarchical topologies, IS-IS, 119

high availability, 252

Internet edge, 309

redundancy, 252253, 259

GLBP, 255

HSRP, 253254

link media redundancy, 258259

route redundancy, 256258

servers, 256

VRRP, 254255

VSS, 255256

SD-WAN, 357358

WAN, 301, 303, 309

hop counts, routing protocols, 100101

Hop Limit field (IPv6 headers), 50

Host-to-Host Transport layer (TCP/IP), 435

HSRP (Hot Standby Routing Protocol), 253254

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)

response codes, 380

REST, 379380

hub-and-spoke networks, 9394, 218219

hybrid deployment model, IPv6, 74

hybrid LAN access layer, 247248

hybrid topologies, IS-IS, 119

Hybrid WAN, 304, 306307

I

iBGP (Internal Border Gateway Protocol), 149, 150152

ICMPv6 (Internet Control Message Protocol version 6)

IPv6 addressing, 59

packet-too big messages, 61

Identification field (IPv4 headers), 5

IEEE 802.1p, 262

IEEE 802.1Q, 262, 263

IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force), 387

IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol), 181, 187

CGMP, 183

IGMPv1, 182

IGMPv2, 182

IGMPv3, 182183

snooping, 184

IGP (Interior Gateway Protocols), 9495

IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol), 95

IHL field (IPv4 headers), 5

in-band network management, 189190

infinity counting loop-prevention scheme, 105

INFRA VRF, 339

inside global addresses, NAT, 15, 16

inside local addresses, NAT, 15, 16

integration, SD-Access, 324

interior gateway protocols. See IGP

internal routers

OSPFv2, 139

OSPFv3, 145

Internet

connectivity, WAN, 307309

DIA, SD-WAN, 360

WAN, 304,

Internet edge, high availability, 309

Internet layer (TCP/IP), 435

Intranet VPN, 285

IntServ QoS, 312

IOS XE routers (SD-WAN), outboarding, 355

IP multicast, 180

addressing, 180181

BIDIR-PIM, 186, 187

CGMP, 183

dense multicast, 184

IGMP, 181, 187

CGMP, 183

IGMPv1, 182

IGMPv2, 182

IGMPv3, 182183

snooping, 184

IPv6, 187188

Layer 3 to Layer 2 mapping, 181182

MSDP, 186187

PIM, 185

auto-RP, 186

BIDIR-PIM, 186, 187

DR, 185

MSDP, 186187

PIM-SM, 185, 187

PIM-SM, joining, 185186

PIM-SM, pruning, 186

SSM, 186, 187

shared trees, 184185

source trees, 184185

sparse multicast, 184

SSM, 186, 187

IP Options field (IPv4 headers), 6

IP precedence

DSCP, 89

ToS field (IPv4 headers), 79

IP telephony networks, VLSM, 22

IPsec (Internet Protocol Security), 285287

IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4), 4

addressing, 1011, 13

AND logical operation, 19

assignments, ARP, 3435

assignments, BOOTP, 30

assignments, DHCP, 3032

assignments, DNS, 3234

assignments, name resolution, 2930

assignments, recommended practices, 30

broadcast addresses, 13, 14

classes, 1113

design, creating plans, 27

design, goals of, 2324

design, hierarchical IP address networks, 2526

design, planning for future use, 24

design, private IPv4 networks, 2627

design, public IPv4 networks, 2627

design, route summarization, 2425

design, subnet case study, 2729

IPv4-compatible IPv6 addresses, 55

IPv4-mapped IPv6 addresses, 51, 56

multicast addresses, 13, 14

NAT, 1416

octet conversions, 11

partly-linked IPv4 addresses, IPv6, 6667

private addressing, 14

private IPv4 networks, 2627

public IPv4 networks, 2627

subnetting, 1617

subnetting, case study, 2729

subnetting, design example, 18

subnetting, network portions of addresses, 19

subnetting, subnet masks, 17

subnetting, VLSM, 1923

unicast addresses, 1314

wholly-linked IPv4 addresses, IPv6, 67

characteristics of, 76

datagrams (packets), 4

EIGRP, 113

fragmentation, 10

headers, 5

Destination Address field, 6

fields, descriptions of, 57

fields, summary of, 67

Flags field, 5

Fragment Offset field, 5

Header Checksum field, 6

Identification field, 5

IHL field, 5

IP Options field, 6

Padding field, 6

Protocol field, 6

Source Address field, 6

Time To Live field, 5

ToS field, 5, 710

Total Length field, 5

Version field, 5

IPv6 comparisons, 76

IPv6 migration, 6768

dual-stack migration strategy, 68

tunneling strategies, 6970

protocol numbers, 6

routing protocols, 9899

translation strategies

DNS64, 71

NAT64, 7173

NAT-PT, 7071

tunneling strategies, 69

automatic tunneling, 6970

GRE tunneling, 69

manual configurations, 69

IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6), 4748, 9899

addressing

AAAA requests, 6061

allocations, 52

allocations, partly-linked IPv4 addresses, 6667

allocations, per location/type, 67

allocations, prefixes, 5253

allocations, wholly-linked IPv4 addresses, 67

anycast addressing, 56, 58

assigning, 61

assigning, DHCPv6, 63

assigning, DHCPv6 Lite, 63

assigning, manual configurations, 62

assigning, SLAAC globally unique addressing, 6263

assigning, SLAAC link-local addressing, 62, 63

design, 65

design, IPv6 for Enterprise, 66

design, planning for, 65

design, private IPv6 addressing, 66

design, route summarization, 6566

ICMPv6, 59

IPv4-compatible IPv6 addresses, 55

IPv4-mapped IPv6 addresses, 51, 56

loopback addressing, 53

multicast addressing, 5658

multicast addressing, group ID field, 57

multicast addressing, well-known addresses, 5758

name resolution, 6061

ND protocol, 5960

path MTU discovery, 61

prefixes, 5153, 58

representation of, 5051

unicast addresses, 53, 58

unicast addresses, global addressing, 54

unicast addresses, global aggregatable addressing, 55

unicast addresses, link-local addressing, 54

unicast addresses, unique local addressing, 55

autoconfiguration schemes, 63

characteristics of, 76

deployment models, 68, 73, 7576

dual-stack deployment model, 73

hybrid deployment model, 74

service block deployment model, 75

EIGRP, 113115

enhancements over IPv4, 48

headers, 49, 50

Destination Address field, 50

Flow Label field, 49

format of, 49

Hop Limit field, 50

Next Header field, 49

Payload Length field, 49

Source Address field, 50

Traffic Class field, 49

Version field, 49

IPv4 comparisons, 76

IPv4 migration, 6768

dual-stack migration strategy, 68

tunneling strategies, 6970

IS-IS, 120

multicast addressing, 187188

protocol numbers, 4950

routing protocols, 64

EIGRP, 64

IS-IS, 65

MP-BGP, 65

OSPFv3, 64

RIPng, 64

security, 6364

translation strategies

DNS64, 71

NAT64, 7173

NAT-PT, 7071

tunneling strategies, 69

automatic tunneling, 6970

GRE tunneling, 69

manual configurations, 69

ISATAP tunnels, 70, 74

ISE, SD-Access, 330332

IS-IS (Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System), 95, 96, 115116

area design, 117119

authentication, 120

characteristics of, 120121

DR, 117

flat topologies, 118

hierarchical topologies, 119

hybrid topologies, 119

interface types, 117

IPv6, 65, 120

metrics, 116

NET addressing, 116117

ISL (Inter-Switch Links), 262263

J

joining PIM-SM, 185186

JSON (JavaScript Object Notation), 377378

K - L

LACP (Link Aggregation Control Protocol), 226

LAN (Local Area Networks)

campus networks, design

application requirements, 244245

best practices, 244

enterprise campus LAN, 260261

enterprise LAN design

10 Gigabit Ethernet design rules, 224225

application requirements, 244245

best practices, 244

EtherChannel, 226227

Ethernet design rules, 221222

Gigabit Ethernet design rules, 222224

hierarchical network models, 212220

media comparisons, 227

PoE, 227228

STP, design, 228230

STP, toolkit, 230232

STP, UDLD protocol, 233

VLAN design models, 220221

WoL, 228

Ethernet design rules, 221

10 Gigabit Ethernet, 224225

EtherChannel, 226227

Fast Ethernet, 221222

Gigabit Ethernet, 222224

hierarchical network models, 212, 213, 216

access layer, 215, 216

benefits of, 212213

collapsed core networks, 218219

core layer, 213214, 215216

distribution layer, 214215, 216

end-to-end VLAN design model, 220221

hub-and-spoke networks, 218219

local VLAN design model, 220221

NAC, 216

redundancy links, 220

redundancy triangles, 219220

routed hierarchical design, 217

switched hierarchical design, 216217

VSS, 217218

hybrid LAN access layer, 247248

large-building LAN, 259

SD-WAN LAN design, 359360

VLAN

end-to-end VLAN design model, 220221

local VLAN design model, 220221

PVST+229

Rapid PVST+229–230

VTP, 252

VPLS, 289290

VXLAN, 326, 327, 328

WoL, 228

large-building LAN, 259

Layer 2 access layer

LAN design, SD-WAN, 359

traditional, 245246, 248

switches, 261

updated (VSS), 246247, 248

VPN, 288

WAN, 277

Layer 3 access layer, 246247, 248

LAN design, SD-WAN, 360

Layer 2 mapping, 181182

switches, 261

triangles, 250

VPN, 288, 306307

layered communication, 435436

learning state (STP), 228

LFI (Link Fragmentation and Interweaving), 315

link-local addresses, IPv6, 54, 62, 63

links

aggregation, LACP, 226

efficiency, QoS, 315

ISL, 262263

media redundancy, 258259

redundancy, 220, 259

UDLD, 233

link-state routing protocols, 96, 97

LISP (Locator/ID Separator Protocol), 326, 327

listening state (STP), 228

LLDP (Link Layer Discovery Protocol), 199

load balancing

BGP, 159160

GLBP, 255

route redundancy, 256257

load parameter, routing protocols, 102103, 109

local addressing

inside local addresses, 15, 16

outside local addresses, 16

unicast addresses

link-local addressing, 54

unique local addressing, 55

local preference attribute, BGP, 154, 157

local servers, network requirements, 244, 245

local VLAN design model, 220221

locking up valuables (exam preparation), 399

logical AND operation, 19

loopback addressing

IPv6, 53

VLSM, 21, 2223

loops

Loop Guard, 231, 232, 248

loop-prevention schemes, 104

counting to infinity scheme, 105

poison reverse scheme, 104105

split horizon scheme, 104

triggered update scheme, 105

STP, 228

blocking state, 228

disabled state, 229

forwarding state, 228

learning state, 228

listening state, 228

metrics, 229

LQ (Low-Latency Queuing), QoS queuing traffic, 314

LSA (Link-State Advertisements)

OSPFv2, 140141

OSPFv3, 145147

LSAck packets, OSPFv2, 136

LSR packets, OSPFv2, 136

LSU packets, OSPFv2, 136

LTE (Long Term Evolution), 281

LTE Advanced, 281, 282

LTE Advanced Pro, 281

M

magic packets, 228

manageability, WAN, 301

managed devices, SNMP, 189

Management plane (SD-WAN), 350, 351

managing networks, 188

accounting management, 188

in-band network management, 189190

CDP, 198199, 200

configuration management, 188

fault management, 188

FCAPS, 188

LLDP, 199

MIB, 190191

NetFlow, 195198, 200

NMS, 188, 189

OOB network management, 189190

performance management, 188

RMON, 188, 193, 200

NetFlow comparisons, 198

RMONv1, 193194

RMONv2, 194195

security management, 188

SNMP, 188, 189, 191

agents, 189

components of, 189

managed devices, 189

NetFlow comparisons, 198

NMS, 189

SNMPv1, 191192, 193

SNMPv2, 192, 193

SNMPv3, 193

Syslog, 199200

traffic prioritization, 190

mandatory attributes, BGP, 153

manual configurations

IPv6, tunneling strategies, 69

IPv6 address assignments, 62

mapping, Layer 3 to Layer 2, 181182

marking traffic, QoS, 312

MEC (Mulitchassis EtherChannel), 246

MED attribute, BGP, 155156, 157

metrics

EIGRP, 109110

route redistribution, 166

routing protocols, 100104

EIGRP, 109110

IS-IS, 116

OSPFv2, 135

Metro Ethernet, WAN, 277, 278279

mGRE (Multipoint GRE), 287

MIB (Management Information Base), 190191

migration strategies

IPv4 to IPv6, 6768

dual-stack migration strategy, 68

tunneling strategies, 6970

SD-WAN, 363

MLP (Multilink PPP), 315

mobile wireless, WAN, 281

model-driven programmability stacks, 379

model-driven telemetry, 387, 388389

monitoring, RMON, 193, 200

NetFlow comparisons, 198

RMONv1, 193194

RMONv2, 194195

MP-BGP (Multiprotocol Border Gateway Protocol), 65, 150

MPLS (Multiprotocol Label Switching)

Layer 3 VPN, 277278, 290291

MP-BGP, 150

WAN, 275, 304, 305306

MSDP (Multicast Source Discovery Protocol), 186187

MST protocol and STP, 230

MTU (Maximum Transmission Units)

path MTU discovery, IPv6 addresses, 61

routing protocols, 103104

multicasting, 180

addressing, 180181

IPv4, 13, 14

IPv6, 5658, 187188

BIDIR-PIM, 186, 187

CGMP, 183

dense multicast, 184

IGMP, 181, 187

CGMP, 183

IGMPv1, 182

IGMPv2, 182

IGMPv3, 182183

snooping, 184

Layer 3 to Layer 2 mapping, 181182

MSDP, 186187

packets, SD-Access fabric, 340

PIM, 185

auto-RP, 186

BIDIR-PIM, 186, 187

DR, 185

MSDP, 186187

PIM-SM, 185, 187

PIM-SM, joining, 185186

PIM-SM, pruning, 186

SSM, 186, 187

SD-WAN, 365

shared trees, 184185

source trees, 184185

sparse multicast, 184

SSM, 186, 187

MultiChassis EtherChannels, 339

multi-homed WAN, 305, 306

multimode fiber cabling, 227

Multipath Load Sharing, BGP, 160

N

NAC (Network Access Control), 216

name resolution

DNS, 32

IPv4 addresses, 2930

IPv6 addresses, 6061

NAT (Network Address Translation)

dynamic NAT, 15, 16

IPv4, 1416

overlapping networks, 15

overloading, 15, 16

PAT, 15, 16

public networks, 15

static NAT, 15, 16

stub domains, 15

NAT64, 71

stateful NAT64, 7173

stateless NAT64, 71, 73

NAT-PT, 7071

NBAR (Network-Based Application Recognition), 312

ND protocol, IPv6 addressing, 5960

Neighbor Discovery protocol. See ND protocol

neighbor discovery/recovery, EIGRP, 106107

neighbors, BGP, 148149

NET addressing, IS-IS, 116117

NETCONF (Network Configuration), 377, 380381, 383

data stores, 383

<hello> operations, 383384

models, 383

protocol operations, 384

RESTCONF comparisons, 385386

SD-WAN, 356

NetFlow, 195, 200

accounting, 195

benefits of, 196

components of, 195

data analyzers, 195, 196197

data records, 196

Flexible NetFlow, 197

flow collector engines, 195, 196

RMON comparisons, 198

SNMP comparisons, 198

networks

API, 376377, 385

application requirements

client servers, 244, 245

data centers, 244, 245

enterprise edge, 244, 245

local servers, 244, 245

peer-to-peer applications, 244, 245

campus networks

10 Gigabit Ethernet design rules, 224225

design, application requirements, 244245

design, best practices, 244

enterprise campus LAN, 260261

EtherChannel, 226227

Ethernet design rules, 221222

Gigabit Ethernet design rules, 222224

hierarchical network models, 212220

increasing availability, 257258

ISL, 262263

media comparisons, 227

PoE, 227228

QoS, 262263

small campus network design, 262

STP, design, 228230

STP, toolkit, 230232

STP, UDLD protocol, 233

VLAN design models, 220221

WoL, 228

collapsed core networks, 218219

data analyzers, NetFlow, 195, 196197

enterprise LAN design

10 Gigabit Ethernet design rules, 224225

application requirements, 244245

best practices, 244

EtherChannel, 226227

Ethernet design rules, 221222

Gigabit Ethernet design rules, 222224

hierarchical network models, 212220

media comparisons, 227

PoE, 227228

STP, design, 228230

STP, toolkit, 230232

STP, UDLD protocol, 233

VLAN design models, 220221

WoL, 228

full-mesh networks, 257

hierarchical IP address networks, planning for, 2526

hierarchical network models, 212, 213, 216

access layer, 215, 216, 245249

benefits of, 212213

campus layer, 251252

collapsed core networks, 218219

core layer, 213214, 215216, 250

distribution layer, 214215, 216, 249250

end-to-end VLAN design model, 220221

hub-and-spoke networks, 218219

local VLAN design model, 220221

NAC, 216

redundancy links, 220

redundancy triangles, 219220

routed hierarchical design, 217

switched hierarchical design, 216217

VSS, 217218

high availability network services, 252259

hub-and-spoke networks, 9394, 218219

IP telephony networks, VLSM, 22

IPv4 networks

private IPv4 networks, 2627

public IPv4 networks, 2627

LAN

10 Gigabit Ethernet design rules, 224226

campus network design, application requirements, 244245

campus network design, best practices, 244

enterprise campus LAN, 260261

EtherChannel, 226227

Ethernet design rules, 221222

Gigabit Ethernet design rules, 222224

hierarchical network models, 212220

hybrid LAN access layer, 247248

large-building LAN, 259

SD-WAN LAN design, 359360

VLAN design models, 220221

VPLS, 289290

VXLAN, 326, 327, 328

managing, 188

accounting management, 188

in-band network management, 189190

CDP, 198199, 200

configuration management, 188

fault management, 188

FCAPS, 188

LLDP, 199

MIB, 190191

NetFlow, 195198, 200

NMS, 188, 189

OOB network management, 189190

performance management, 188

RMON, 188, 193, 200

RMON, NetFlow comparisons, 198

RMONv1, 193194

RMONv2, 194195

security management, 188

SNMP, 188, 189, 191

SNMP, agents, 189

SNMP, components of, 189

SNMP, managed devices, 189

SNMP, NetFlow comparisons, 198

SNMP, NMS, 189

SNMPv1, 191192, 193

SNMPv2, 192, 193

SNMPv3, 193

Syslog, 199200

traffic prioritization, 190

OSPFv2, 136

overlapping, NAT, 15

overlay networks, SD-Access fabric, 325, 326327, 332333

partial-mesh networks, 258

public networks, NAT, 15

redundancy

links, 220

SD-WAN, 358

triangles, 219220

SD-WAN, 350. See also WAN

architecture of, 350351

benefits of, 350

Control plane, 351, 352, 356357

Data plane, 351, 352

designing, 356363

high availability, 357358

LAN design, 359360

Management plane, 350, 351

migration strategies, 363

multicasting, 365

Orchestration plane, 350, 352

QoS, 363365

redundancy, 357358

scalability, 356357

security, 355356

vAnalytics component, 351

vBond component, 352

vEdge component, 352355

vManage component, 351, 352, 356

vSmart component, 352

small campus network design, 262

underlay networks, SD-Access fabric, 325326

VLAN

end-to-end VLAN design model, 220221

IP address allocation, 22

local VLAN design model, 220221

PVST+229

Rapid PVST+229–230

VTP, 252

VN, 335336

VoIP networks, IP address allocation, 22

VPN

benefits of, 285286

DMVPN, 287288

examples of, 285286

Extranet VPN, 285

GETVPN, 291

GRE, 291

Intranet VPN, 285

Layer 2 VPN, 277, 288

Layer 3 VPN, 288, 306307

MP-BGP, 150

MPLS Layer 3 VPN, 277278, 290291

SD-WAN, LAN design, 360

service provider VPN, 288

site-to-site VPN, 284286

VPLS, 289290

VPWS, 289

VXLAN, 326, 327, 328

WAN, 275. See also SD-WAN

4G technologies, 277, 281282

5G technologies, 277, 281282

backups, 309

bandwidth, 302303

cost, 275, 301

customer edge, Ethernet handoffs, 279

dark fiber cabling, 280281

data traffic, 301

defined, 274275

downtime, 301

DMVPN, 287288

DWDM, 277, 279280

edge modules, 275276

enterprise edge, 275

enterprise edge modules, 275276

failovers, 310

GETVPN, 291

GRE, 291

high availability, 301, 303, 309

Hybrid WAN, 304, 306307

Internet connectivity, 307309

Internet WAN, 304

IPsec, 285287

Layer 2 VPN, 277, 288

Layer 3 VPN, 288, 306307

link categories, 283284

manageability, 301

methodologies, 300301

Metro Ethernet, 277, 278279

MPLS, 275, 304, 305306

MPLS Layer 3 VPN, 277278, 290291

multi-homed WAN, 305, 306

overview of, 274

packet loss tolerance, 301

performance, 301

principles, 301

redundancy, 304305, 309

reliability, 302

remote signs, 308309

response time, 301, 302

scalability, 301

SD-WAN, 277, 282283, 309

security, 301

service provider VPN, 288

services, 275276

single-homed WAN, 305

site-to-site VPN, 284286

SLA, 274275

SONET/SDH, 279280

standards/regulations, 301

system availability, 303304

throughput, 301, 302

transport technologies, 276277

transport technologies, ordering, 284

video traffic, 301

voice traffic, 301

VPLS, 289290

VPN, benefits of, 285286

VPWS, 289

wireless technologies, 281282

Network Interface layer (TCP/IP), 435

Network layer (OSI layer 3), 432

Next Header field (IPv6 headers), 49

next-hop attribute, BGP, 153, 157

NHRP (Next Hop Resolution Protocol), 287

NMS (Network Management System), 188, 189

notes (exam preparation), taking, 399

NSF (Non-Stop Forwarding), 168

NSR (Non-Stop Routing), 168

NSSA (Not-So-Stubby-Areas), 140141, 142, 146, 147

numeric conversion, 436

binary numbers

to decimal numbers, 441

decimal numbers to binary numbers, 442443

to hexadecimal numbers, 440

hexadecimal numbers to binary numbers, 441

decimal numbers

to binary numbers, 442443

binary numbers to decimal numbers, 441

to hexadecimal numbers, 437438

hexadecimal numbers to decimal numbers, 439

hexadecimal numbers

to binary numbers, 441

binary numbers to hexadecimal numbers, 440

to decimal numbers, 439

decimal numbers to hexadecimal numbers, 437438

O

octet conversions, IPv4 addressing, 11

OMP (Overlay Management Protocol), 352353

on-change publications (subscriptions), 390

one-way redistribution, 165166

OOB network management, 189190

OpenConfig, 387

optional attributes, BGP, 153

Orchestration plane (SD-WAN), 350, 352

origin attribute, BGP, 154155, 157

OSI model

Application layer (OSI layer 7), 434

Data Link layer (OSI layer 2), 432

layered communication, 435436

Network layer (OSI layer 3), 432

overview of, 430431

Physical layer (OSI layer 1), 431

Presentation layer (OSI layer 6), 434

Session layer (OSI layer 5), 433

TCP/IP and, 434435

Transport layer (OSI layer 4), 433

OSPF (Open Shortest Path First), 95

OSPFv2, 96, 134135

ABR, 139

area design, 137138

ASBR, 139

authentication, 143

backbone routers, 139

characteristics of, 143144

DBD packets, 136

DR, 139140

hello packets, 135

interface costs (default), 135

internal routers, 139

LSA, 140141

LSAck packets, 136

LSR packets, 136

LSU packets, 136

metrics, 135

networks, 136

NSSA, 142

route redistribution, 166

router types, 138139

stubby areas, 141

totally stubby areas, 141

virtual links, 142143

OSPFv3, 96, 144

ABR, 145

area design, 144145

ASBR, 145

backbone routers, 145

changes from OSPFv2, 144

characteristics of, 147

internal routers, 145

IPv6, 64

LSA, 145147

route redistribution, 166

router types, 144145

OTT (Over-The-Top) wireless, 329331, 339

outside global addresses, NAT, 16

outside local addresses, NAT, 16

overlapping networks, NAT, 15

overlay networks, SD-Access fabric, 325, 326327, 332333

overlay subnets, 22

overloading NAT, 15, 16

oversubscription, 258

P

packets (datagrams), 4

acknowledgment packets, EIGRP, 111

DBD packets, OSPFv2, 136

hello packets

EIGRP, 110

OSPFv2, 135

loss tolerance, WAN, 301

LSAck packets, OSPFv2, 136

LSR packets, OSPFv2, 136

LSU packets, OSPFv2, 136

magic packets, 228

multicast packets, SD-Access fabric, 340

query packets, EIGRP, 111

reply packets, EIGRP, 111

update packets, EIGRP, 111

packet-too big messages, 61

Padding field (IPv4 headers), 6

PAgP (Port Aggregation Protocol), 226227

partial-mesh networks, 258

partly-linked IPv4 addresses, IPv6 addressing, 6667

passive route state, EIGRP, 108

PAT (Port Address Translation), 15, 16

path attributes

aggregator attribute, 156

AS-Path attribute, 155, 157

atomic aggregate attribute, 156, 157

BGP, 150, 153

community attribute, 155, 157

discretionary attributes, 153

local preference attribute, 154, 157

mandatory attributes, 153

MED attribute, 155156, 157

next-hop attribute, 153, 157

optional attributes, 153

origin attribute, 154155, 157

weight attribute, 156157

well-known attributes, 153

path MTU discovery, IPv6 addresses, 61

Payload Length field (IPv6 headers), 49

PBR (Policy-Based Routing), 161

Pearson IT Certification test engine, 399, 400402

Pearson test prep software

customizing, 400401

offline access, 400

online access, 399, 401402

Premium Edition, 401402

peer-to-peer applications, network requirements, 244, 245

performance

networks

applications, 261

managing, 188

WAN, 301

periodic publications (subscriptions), 389390

Physical layer (OSI layer 1), 431

PIM (Protocol Independent Multicast), 185

auto-RP, 186

BIDIR-PIM, 186, 187

DR, 185

MSDP, 186187

PIM-SM, 185, 187

joining, 185186

pruning, 186

SSM, 186, 187

PnP connect, IOS XE routers (SD-WAN), 355

PoE (Power over Ethernet), 227228

POE+228

poison reverse loop-prevention scheme, 104105

policing traffic, QoS, 313

policy plane (SD-Access fabric), 326

policy-driven telemetry, 388

PortFast, 230, 232, 248

ports

aggregation

EtherChannel, 226

PAgP, 226227

STP

disabled state, 229

forwarding state, 228

learning state, 228

listening state, 228

metrics, 229

PQ (Priority Queuing), QoS queuing traffic, 314

preemption, GLBP, 255

prefixes, IPv6 addresses, 5153, 58

Premium Edition (Pearson test prep software), 401402

preparing for exams

chapter-ending review tools, 402

DITKA questions, 402

exam day preparations, 398399

final study/review, 402

Pearson IT Certification test engine, 399, 400402

Pearson test prep software

customizing, 400401

offline access, 400

online access, 399

Premium Edition, 401402

updating exams, 401402

Presentation layer (OSI layer 6), 434

preventive troubleshooting, streaming telemetry data, 388

prioritizing network traffic, 190

private addressing

IPv4, 14

IPv6, 66

private IPv4 networks, 2627

programmability, evolution of, 377

protocol-dependent modules, EIGRP, 106

Protocol field (IPv4 headers), 6

protocol numbers

IPv4, 6

IPv6, 4950

pruning PIM-SM, 186

public networks

IPv4 networks, 2627

NAT, 15

PVST+ (Per VLAN Spanning Tree Plus), 229

Q

QoS (Quality of Service), 310311

BE QoS, 311

campus networks, 262263

CAR, 312, 313

DiffServ QoS, 311

DSCP, 311

end-to-end QoS policies, designing, 312

IntServ QoS, 312

LFI, 315

link efficiency, 315

MLP, 315

NBAR, 312

RTP header compression, 315

SD-WAN, 363365

application-aware routing, 364

BFD, 363

policies, 364

traffic

classifying, 312

marking, 312

policing, 313

queuing, 313315

shaping, 312313

window size, 315

QPPB (QoS Policy Propagation on BGP), 150

query packets, EIGRP, 111

queuing traffic, QoS, 313

CBWFQ, 314

congestion management, 313314

CQ, 314

LQ, 314

PQ, 314

WFQ, 314

R

Rapid PVST+ (Per VLAN Spanning Tree Plus), 229230

RBAC (Role-Based Access Control), 355, 356

RD (Reported Distance), EIGRP, 107

redistribution of routes, 164165

default metrics, 166

EIGRP, 166

one-way redistribution, 165166

OSPF, 166

two-way redistribution, 165

redundancy, 259

high availability network services, 252253

GLBP, 255

HSRP, 253254

link media redundancy, 258259

route redundancy, 256258

servers, 256

VRRP, 254255

VSS, 255256

link media redundancy, 258259

links, 220, 259

route redundancy, 259

campus networks availability, 257258

load balancing, 256257

workstation-to-router redundancy, 259

SD-WAN, 357358

servers, 256, 259

triangles, 219220

VRRP, 254255

VSS, 217218

WAN, 304305, 309

workstation-to-router redundancy, 259

regulations/standards, WAN, 301

reliability

routing protocols, 103, 109

WAN, 302

remote sites, WAN, 308309

reply packets, EIGRP, 111

resource records. See RR

response codes (HTTP), 380

response time, WAN, 301, 302

rest (exam preparation), getting, 399

REST (Representational State Transfer), 377, 379380

restarting GR, 168

RESTCONF, 377, 380381, 384

API, CRUD operations, 385

NETCONF comparisons, 385386

URI, 380381

reviewing/final study, exam preparation, 402

RIPng (RIP Next Generation), 64, 96

RIPv1, 9596

RIPv2, 95

RMON (Remote Monitoring), 193, 200

NetFlow comparisons, 198

networks, 188

RMONv1, 193194

RMONv2, 194195

Root Guard, 231, 232, 249

routers

ABR

OSPFv2, 139

OSPFv3, 145

ASBR

OSPFv2, 139

OSPFv3, 145

backbone routers

OSPFv2, 139

OSPFv3, 145

DR, PIM DR, 185

full-mesh networks, 257

internal routers

OSPFv2, 139

OSPFv3, 145

IOS XE routers (SD-WAN), outboarding, 355

IS-IS area design, 117119

OSPFv2 router types, 138139

OSPFv3 router types, 144145

redundancy, workstation-to-router redundancy, 259

stub routers, EIGRP, 111112

virtual routers, GLBP, 255

routing

application-aware routing, SD-WAN, 364

filtering routes, 166167

GR, 168

IPv6 routing protocols, 64

EIGRP, 64

IS-IS, 65

MP-BGP, 65

OSPFv3, 64

RIPng, 64

NSF, 168

NSR, 168

PBR, 161

redistribution of routes, 164165

default metrics, 166

EIGRP, 166

one-way redistribution, 165166

OSPF, 166

two-way redistribution, 165

redundancy, 259

campus networks availability, 257258

load balancing, 256257

reflectors, iBGP, 150152

routed hierarchical design, 217

summarization, 161163

IPv4 addressing, 2425

IPv6 addressing, 6566

VRF, 168

VRRP, 254255

routing protocols

administrative distance, 99100

aggregator attribute, 156

AS-Path attribute, 155, 157

atomic aggregate attribute, 156, 157

bandwidth, 101, 109

BFD, 167168

BGP, 95, 147

administrative distance, 153

best path order, 159

characteristics of, 160161

CIDR, 147148

confederations, 152153

decision process, 158159

eBGP, 149, 160

iBGP, 149152

load balancing, 159160

MP-BGP, 150

Multipath Load Sharing, 160

neighbors, 148149

path attributes, 150, 153157

QPPB, 150

route manipulation, 159160

transit traffic, 167

characteristics of, 9293, 100

classful routing protocols, 9798

classless routing protocols, 9798

community attribute, 155, 157

cost, 102

delay parameter, 103, 109

discretionary attributes, 153

distance vector routing protocols, 9596, 97

dynamic routes

list of, 94

static routes versus, 9394

eBGP, 149, 160

EGP, 9495

EIGRP, 95, 96, 97, 105106

acknowledgment packets, 111

active route state, 108

characteristics of, 115

components of, 106108

designing, 111

DUAL, 107108

FD, 107, 108

feasability conditions, 107

feasible successors, 107

hello packets, 109, 110

for IPv4, 113

for IPv6 networks, 113115

metrics, 109110

neighbor discovery/recovery, 106107

passive route state, 108

protocol-dependent modules, 106

query packets, 111

RD, 107

reply packets, 111

route redistribution, 166

RTP, 107

stub routers, 111112

stuck-in-active route state, 108

successor routes, 107

successors, 107

timers, 109

update packets, 111

updates, 109

variance command, 113

flat routing protocols, 97

hierarchical routing protocols, 97

hop counts, 100101

iBGP, 149152

IGP, 9495

IGRP, 95

IPv4 routing protocols, 9899

IPv6 routing protocols, 9899

IS-IS, 95, 96, 115116

area design, 117119

authentication, 120

characteristics of, 120121

DR, 117

flat topologies, 118

hierarchical topologies, 119

hybrid topologies, 119

interface types, 117

IPv6, 120

metrics, 116

NET addressing, 116117

link-state routing protocols, 96, 97

load parameter, 102103, 109

local preference attribute, 154, 157

loop-prevention schemes, 104

counting to infinity scheme, 105

poison reverse scheme, 104105

split horizon scheme, 104

triggered update scheme, 105

mandatory attributes, 153

MED attribute, 155156, 157

metrics, 100104, 109110

MP-BGP, 150

MTU parameter, 103104

multicast addressing, 180

next-hop attribute, 153, 157

optional attributes, 153

origin attribute, 154155, 157

OSPF, 95

OSPFv2, 96, 134135

ABR, 139

area design, 137138

ASBR, 139

authentication, 143

backbone routers, 139

characteristics of, 143144

DBD packets, 136

DR, 139140

hello packets, 135

interface costs (default), 135

internal routers, 139

LSA, 140141

LSAck packets, 136

LSR packets, 136

LSU packets, 136

metrics, 135

networks, 136

NSSA, 142

route redistribution, 166

router types, 138139

stubby areas, 141

totally stubby areas, 141

virtual links, 142143

OSPFv3, 96, 144

ABR, 145

area design, 144145

ASBR, 145

backbone routers, 145

changes from OSPFv2, 144

characteristics of, 147

internal routers, 145

LSA, 145147

route redistribution, 166

router types, 144145

reliability parameter, 103, 109

RIPng, 64, 96

RIPv1, 9596

RIPv2, 95

static routes

dynamic routes versus, 9394

hub-and-spoke networks, 9394

summarization, 105

uses of, 95

weight attribute, 156157

well-known attributes, 153

RP (Rendezvous Points), 184185, 186

RR (Resource Records), DNS RR, 3233

RTP (Reliable Transport Protocol)

EIGRP, 107

header compression, 315

S

scalability

network applications, 261

SD-Access fabric, 336339

SD-WAN, 356357

WAN, 301

scope assignments, IPv6 multicast addressing, 57

SD-Access

architecture, 324325

assurance, 324

automation, 324, 328329

benefits of, 324

DNA Center, 324325

integration, 324

ISE, 330332

policies, 324

SD-Access fabric, 324, 325

borders, 334

control plane, 326, 327, 333334

data plane, 326, 328

fabric sites, 333

fabric wireless, 339340

INFRA VRF, 339

large site considerations, 337, 338339

medium site considerations, 337, 338

multicast packets, 340

OTT wireless, 339

overlay design, 332333

overlay networks, 325, 326327, 332333

policy plane, 326

scalability, 336339

segmentation, 334335

small site considerations, 337338

underlay networks, 325326

very small site considerations, 336, 337

VN, 335336

wired/wireless considerations, 332

WLC, 339

wireless SD-Access, 329331

SD-WAN (Software-Defined WAN), 277, 350

ACL, 362363

application-aware routing, 364

architecture of, 350351

backups, 309

benefits of, 350

BFD, 363

Control plane, 351, 352, 356357

customer edge, 282283

Data plane, 351, 352

designing, 352

control plane, 356357

DIA, 360

high availability, 357358

LAN, 359360

redundancy, 357358

security, 361363

vEdge DHCP server, 360

high availability, 357358

IOS XE routers, outboarding, 355

Management plane, 350, 351

migration strategies, 363

multicasting, 365

Orchestration plane, 350, 352

QoS, 363

application-aware routing, 364

BFD, 363

policies, 364

redundancy, 357358

scalability, 356357

security, 355356

ACL, 362363

VPN, segmentation, 361

VPN, topologies, 362

vAnalytics component, 351

vBond component, 352

vEdge component, 352

color attributes, 352

interface queues, 364365

OMP, 352353

onboarding, 354, 355

provisioning, 354

ZTP, 354

vManage component, 351, 352, 356

VPN

segmentation, 361

topologies, 362

vSmart component, 352

security. See also authentication

ACL, SD-WAN, 362363

IPsec, 285287

IPv6, 6364

networks, managing, 188

SD-WAN, 355356

ACL, 362363

VPN, segmentation, 361

VPN, topologies, 362

TrustSec, 331332

VPN

benefits of, 285286

DMVPN, 287288

examples of, 285286

Extranet VPN, 285

GETVPN, 291

GRE, 291

Intranet VPN, 285

Layer 2 VPN, 277, 288

Layer 3 VPN, 288, 306307

MPLS Layer 3 VPN, 277278, 290291

SD-WAN, 361362

SD-WAN, LAN design, 360

service provider VPN, 288

site-to-site VPN, 284286

VPLS, 289290

VPWS, 289

WAN, 301

segmentation, SD-Access fabric, 334335

servers

20/80 rule, 244

client servers, application requirements, 244, 245

local servers, application requirements, 244, 245

redundancy, 256, 259

service block deployment model, IPv6, 75

service provider VPN, 288

services, WAN, 275276

SG (Scalable Groups), 335

Session layer (OSI layer 5), 433

SGACL (Security Group Access Control Lists), 335

SGT (Scalable Group Tags), 331, 335

shaping traffic, QoS, 312313

shared trees, IP multicast, 184185

single-homed WAN, 305

single-mode fiber cabling, 227

site redundancy, SD-WAN, 357

site-to-site VPN, WAN, 284286

SLA (Service-Level Agreements), WAN, 274275

SLAAC (Stateless Address Autoconfiguration), IPv6 addressing

globally unique addressing, 6263

link-local addressing, 62, 63

small campus network design, 262

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol), 188, 189, 191

agents, 189

components of, 189

managed devices, 189

NetFlow comparisons, 198

NMS, 189

SNMPv1, 191192, 193

SNMPv2, 192, 193

SNMPv3, 193

snooping, IGMP, 184

SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol), 377

software, Pearson test prep software

customizing, 400401

offline access, 400

online access, 399

Premium Edition, 401402

updating exams, 401402

SONET/SDH, 279280

Source Address field

IPv4 headers, 6

IPv6 headers, 50

source trees, IP multicast, 184185

SP edge, 276

sparse IP multicast, 184

split horizon loop-prevention scheme, 104

SPT. See shared trees

SSM (Source-Specific Multicast), 186, 187

stacking access layer switches, 249

standards/regulations, WAN, 301

stateful NAT64, 7173

stateless NAT64, 71, 73

static NAT, 15, 16

static persistance, 226

static routes

dynamic routes versus, 9394

hub-and-spoke networks, 9394

STP (Spanning Tree Protocol), 228

BackboneFast, 231, 232

blocking state, 228

BPDU Filter, 232

BPDU Guard, 231, 232, 249

disabled state, 229

FHRP alignment, 230

forwarding state, 228

learning state, 228

listening state, 228

Loop Guard, 231, 232, 248

metrics, 229

MST and, 230

PortFast, 230, 232, 248

PVST+229

Rapid PVST+229–230

Root Guard, 231, 232, 249

toolkit, 230232

UDLD, 233

UplinkFast, 230, 232

streaming telemetry data, 387388

stub areas

NSSA, 140141, 142, 146, 147

OSPFv2, 141

totally stubby areas, 141, 142

stub domains, 15

stub routers, EIGRP, 111112

stuck-in-active route state, EIGRP, 108

study trackers, 398

subnetting

IPv4 addressing, 1617

case study, 2729

design example, 18

determining network portions of addresses, 19

subnet masks, 17

VLSM, 1923

overlay subnets, 22

VLSM

address assignments, 2021, 2223

IP telephony networks, 22

IPv4 addressing, 1923

loopback addressing, 21

subscriptions

on-change publications, 390

dial-in mode, 390

dial-out mode, 390391

model-driven telemetry, 389390

periodic publications, 389390

successors, EIGRP, 107

summarization of routes, 105, 161163

IPv4 addressing, 2425

IPv6 addressing, 6566

switched hierarchical design, 216217

switches

access layer switches, stacking, 249

building access switches, 262

core switches, 250251

Layer 2 switches, 261

Layer 3 switches, 261

MPLS

MP-BGP, 150

WAN, 275

STP, 228

BackboneFast, 231, 232

blocking state, 228

BPDU Filter, 232

BPDU Guard, 231, 232, 249

disabled state, 229

FHRP alignment, 230

forwarding state, 228

learning state, 228

listening state, 228

Loop Guard, 231, 232, 248

metrics, 229

MST and, 230

PortFast, 230, 232, 248

PVST+229

Rapid PVST+229–230

Root Guard, 231, 232, 249

toolkit, 230232

UDLD, 233

UplinkFast, 230, 232

VSS, 217218, 246247, 248, 255256

Syslog, 199200

system availability, WAN, 303304

T

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol), 430

Application layer, 435

Host-to-Host Transport layer, 435

Internet layer, 435

layered communication, 435436

Network Interface layer, 435

OSI model and, 434435

telemetry

cadence-based telemetry, 388

model-driven telemetry, 387, 388389

policy-driven telemetry, 388

streaming telemetry data, 387388

telephony networks (IP), VLSM, 22

Telnet, layered communication, 435436

throughput, WAN, 301, 302

time budgets, exam preparation, 398

Time To Live field (IPv4 headers), 5

timers, EIGRP, 109

TLOC (Transport Location) routes, 352, 353

toolkits (STP), 230232

topologies

flat topologies, IS-IS, 118

hierarchical topologies, IS-IS, 119

hybrid topologies, IS-IS, 119

VPN, SD-WAN, 362

ToS field (IPv4 headers), 5

DS field, 89

DSCP, 810

evolution of, 7

field values, 8

IP precedence bits, 79

Total Length field (IPv4 headers), 5

totally stubby areas, 141, 142

traditional Layer 2 access layer, 246247, 248

traffic

20/80 rule, 244

classifying, QoS, 312

marking, QoS, 312

optimization, streaming telemetry data, 388

policing, QoS, 313

prioritization, network management, 190

queuing, QoS, 313

CBWFQ, 314

congestion management, 313314

CQ, 314

LQ, 314

PQ, 314

WFQ, 314

shaping, QoS, 312313

WAN design, 301

Traffic Class field (IPv6 headers), 49

transit traffic

BGP, 167

route filtering, 167

translation strategies, IPv4 to IPv6

DNS64, 71

NAT64, 71

NAT-PT, 7071

Transport layer (OSI layer 4), 433

transport redundancy, SD-WAN, 357358

travel time, exam preparation, 398

triangles

Layer 3 triangles, 250

redundancy, 219220

triggered update loop-prevention scheme, 105

troubleshooting (preventive), streaming telemetry data, 388

trunking, VTP, 252

TrustSec, 331332

tunneling strategies, IPv4 to IPv6, 69

automatic tunneling, 69

6RD tunnels, 70

6to4 tunnels, 6970

ISATAP tunnels, 70

GRE tunneling, 69

ISATAP tunnels, 74

manual configurations, 69

two-way redistribution, 165

U

UDLD (Unidirection Link Detection), 233

UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service), 281

underlay networks, SD-Access fabric, 325326

unicast addresses

IPv4, 1314

IPv6, 53, 58

global addressing, 54

global aggregatable addressing, 55

link-local addressing, 54

unique local addressing, 55

unique local addressing, IPv6, 55

update packets, EIGRP, 111

updated Layer 2 access layer, 246247, 248

updating

EIGRP, 109

exams, 401402

Pearson test prep software, 400401

triggered update loop-prevention scheme, 105

UplinkFast, 230, 232

UPOE (Universal Power of Ethernet), 228

UPOE+228

URI (Uniform Resource Identifiers), RESTCONF, 384385

UTP cabling, 224, 227

V

valuables (exam preparation), locking up, 399

vAnalytics, SD-WAN, 351

variance command, EIGRP, 113

vBond component, SD-WAN, 352

vEdge

DHCP server, 360

interface queues, 364365

SD-WAN, 352

color attributes, 352

OMP, 352353

onboarding, 354, 355

provisioning, 354

ZTP, 354

Version field (IPv4 headers), 5

Version field (IPv6 headers), 49

video traffic, WAN, 301

virtual links, OSPFv2, 142143

virtual routers, GLBP, 255

VLAN (Virtual Local Area Networks)

end-to-end VLAN design model, 220221

IP address allocation, 22

local VLAN design model, 220221

PVST+229

Rapid PVST+229–230

VTP, 252

VLSM (Variable-Length Subnet Masking)

address assignments, 2021, 2223

IP telephony networks, 22

IPv4 addressing, 1923

loopback addressing, 21

vManage, SD-WAN, 351, 352, 356

VN (Virtual Networks), 335336

voice traffic, WAN, 301

VoIP networks, IP address allocation, 22

VPLS (Virtual Private LAN Service), 289290

VPN (Virtual Private Networks)

benefits of, 285286

DMVPN, WAN, 287288

examples of, 285286

Extranet VPN, 285

GETVPN, WAN, 291

GRE, WAN, 291

Intranet VPN, 285

Layer 2 VPN, 277, 288

Layer 3 VPN, 288, 306307

MP-BGP, 150

MPLS Layer 3 VPN, WAN, 277278, 290291

SD-WAN

LAN design, 360

segmentation, 361

topologies, 362

service provider VPN, 288

site-to-site VPN, WAN, 284286

VPLS, 289290

VPWS, 289

VPWS (Virtual Private Wire Services), 289

VRF (Virtual Routing and Forwarding), 168

VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol), 254255

vSmart, SD-WAN, 352

VSS, updated Layer 2 access layer, 246247, 248

VSS (Virtual Switching System), 217218, 255256

VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol), 252

VXLAN (Virtual Extensible LAN), 326, 327, 328

VXLAN GPO headers, 328

W

WAN (Wide-Area Networks)

4G technologies, 277, 281282

5G technologies, 277, 281282

cost, 275

customer edge, Ethernet handoffs, 279

dark fiber cabling, 280281

defined, 274275

designing, 275

backups, 309

bandwidth, 302303

cost, 301

data traffic, 301

downtime, 301

failovers, 310

high availability, 301, 303, 309

Hybrid WAN, 304, 306307

Internet connectivity, 307309

Internet WAN, 304

manageability, 301

methodologies, 300301

MPLS WAN, 304, 305306

multi-homed WAN, 305, 306

packet loss tolerance, 301

performance, 301

principles of, 301

redundancy, 304305, 309

reliability, 302

remote sites, 308309

response time, 301, 302

scalability, 301

SD-WAN, 309

security, 301

single-homed WAN, 305

standards/regulations, 301

system availability, 303304

throughput, 301, 302

video traffic, 301

voice traffic, 301

DWDM, 277, 279280

edge modules, 275276

enterprise edge, 275

enterprise edge modules, 275276

GRE, 291

IPsec, 285287

Layer 2 VPN, 277

link categories, 283284

Metro Ethernet, 277, 278279

MPLS, 275

overview of, 274

SD-WAN, 277, 350

architecture of, 350351

benefits of, 350

Control plane, 351, 352, 356357

customer edge, 282283

Data plane, 351, 352

designing, 356363

Management plane, 350, 351

migration strategies, 363

multicasting, 365

Orchestration plane, 350, 352

QoS, 363365

security, 355356

vAnalytics component, 351

vBond component, 352

vEdge component, 352355

vManage component, 351, 352, 356

vSmart component, 352

services, 275276

SLA, 274275

SONET/SDH, 279280

transport technologies, 276277, 284

VPN

benefits of, 285286

DMVPN, 287288

GETVPN, 291

GRE, 291

Layer 2 VPN, 277, 288

Layer 3 VPN, 288, 306307

MPLS Layer 3 VPN, 277278, 290291

service provider VPN, 288

site-to-site VPN, 284286

VPLS, 289290

VPWS, 289

wireless technologies, 281282

weight attribute, BGP, 156157

well-known attributes, BGP, 153

WFQ (Weighted Fair Queuing), QoS queuing traffic, 314

wholly-linked IPv4 addresses, IPv6 addressing, 67

window size, QoS, 315

wireless SD-Access, 329331

wireless technologies

OTT wireless, 329331, 339

SD-Access fabric

fabric wireless, 339340

OTT wireless, 339

WAN, 281282

WLC, SD-Access fabric, 339

WoL (Wake on LAN), 228

workstation-to-router redundancy, 259

X

XML (Extensible Markup Language), 378

Y

YANG (Yet Another Next Generation), 380382, 387

Z

ZTP (Zero Touch Provisioning), 354