Chapter 3. Word Elements – Communicative English for Engineers and Professionals


Word Elements

In this unit

Colours fade, temples crumble, empires fall, but wise words endure.”


Edward Throndike

3.1 Introduction

A study of ‘Word Elements’ plays a significant role in the field of vocabulary building. It is practically intricate for us to remember the wide range of words just by cramming them. Knowledge of the elements of a word: root/base and affix, technically known as morphemes (from the Greek word ‘morphe’) would be a much better proposition to enrich the vocabulary of professionals including the engineers-in-making.

3.2 Roots/Base: The Core of a Word

A root is the basic part of a word that comprises its main meaning and is used to form its derivatives. It is a letter or a group of letters taken from Greek or Latin language in English. Roots and bases are the original or primary words. They are added to a prefix, a suffix or a word to change its meaning or to form a new word. As you study the following chart, you can notice that the Latin or the Greek root word is often simple in meaning: Latin, anima, is ‘spirit,’ or Greek, dunamis, is ‘power.’ The table that follows lists many common roots/bases of English language, their sources (Greek/Latin) along with the shades of meanings they have acquired in English word building:

Root with its meaning Source of the root with its meaning in English Sample words

act, ag: do, act, drive

Latin, agere: to drive, lead, act

active, actor, agile, agenda

am, ami: love, like

Latin, amor : to love, amlcus: friend

amorous, amicable, amiable

anim: mind, life, spirit

Latin, anima: spirit

animal, animate

aero: air

Greek, aero: air

aerobics, aerodynamics

arch: chief

Greek, arkhos: chief, arkhein: to rule

architect, archaic, monarch

astr, aster: star

Greek, astron: stars

astrology, astronomy, disaster

annu, enni: yearly

Latin, annus: yearly

annual, perennial, annals, annuity

anthrop: man

Greek, anthropos: man, people

anthropology, anthropoid, misanthrope, philanthropist

auc, aug, aut: to originate, to increase

Latin, augere: to originate, increase

auction, augment, authentic

aud, audi, audit: hear

Latin, audire: to hear, to examine

audible, audience, auditorium, audition

bel, belli: An act or
situation of a war

Latin, bellum: war

rebel, belligerent, rebellion, bellicose

bene, ben: good, well, gentle

Latin, bene: good

benefit, benevolent, benediction, benign

bio: life

Greek, bios: life

biography, biology, antibiotic

bible, biblio: book

Greek, biblion: book

bibliophile, bibliography, biblical

brev: short

Latin, brevis: short

abbreviate, brevity, brief

cad, cap, cas, ceiv, cept, cip, capt, cid: to take, to seize, to hold

Latin, capere: to seize, to fall

cadaver, cadence, capable, occasion, casual, receive, intercept, concept, except, recipient, captive, capture, accident

carn: flesh

Latin, caro carn: flesh

carnal, carnivorous, carnival, carnation

ced, ceas, cede, ceed, cess: go, yield

Latin, cedere: to go, yield, give way

antecedent, cease, accede, precede, recede, exceed, succeed, excess, success

celer: fast

Latin, celer: fast, rapid


cent: hundred

Latin, centum: hundred

century, centipede

chron: time

Greek, khronos: time

chronology, chronic, chronicle, synchronize

cite, cit: quote

Latin, citare: set in motion

cite, incite, citation

clam, claim: shout

Latin, clamare: to call out, shout

clamour, proclaim

cogn, gnos: know to know

Latin, cognoscere: to know

recognize, cognition, diagnose, agnostic

cord: heart

Latin, cor cord: heart

cordial, accord, record, discord

corp, corpor: body

Latin, corpus, corporis: body

corps, corpulent, corpse, corporate, corporation

cosm: universe

Greek, cosmos: universe as a well-ordered whole

cosmology, cosmopolitan

cre, cresc, crease, cret: grow

Latin, crescere: to grow

create, crèche, crescent, increase, accretion

cred: trust, believe

Latin, credo, creditum: to believe

credible, credentials, creed, credit, credulous

cour, cur, curr, curs: run, course

Latin, currere: run

discourse, occur, concur, current, cursor, cursive

dent: tooth

Latin: dens, dent: tooth

dental, dentist

derm, dermat: skin

Greek: derma: skin

epidermis, hypodermic, dermatitis

dic, dict: say, speak

Latin, dictare, dicere: to say, speak

dictate, diction, contradict, edict

doc, doct: teach, prove

Latin, docere: to teach

docile, document, doctrine, doctoral, doctor

dog, dox: thought, idea

Greek, dokein: seem, think

dogma, doxology

dec: suitable

Latin, decere: to be suitable

decent, decency

duc, duct: lead

Latin: ducere: to lead, to draw

conducive, produce, conduct, ductile

dynam: power

Greek, dunamis: power

dynamic, dynamite

electric, electro: electric

Greek , electrum: amber

electricity, hydroelectric, electromagnetic, electronic

ev, et: time, age

Latin, aevum: lifetime

medieval, eternal

fac, fact, fect, fas, fea:
make, do

Latin, facere- make, do

fact, facile, factory, manufacture, perfect, affect, fashion, feasible, feature

fer, late: bear, carry

Latin, ferre: bear, carry

confer, differ, offer, prefer, relate, collate

feign, fain: shape, make, fashion

Latin, fingere: shape, make

feign, fiction, faint, fictitious

fid: belief, faith

Latin, fidere: to trust

confide, confidence

fig: shape, form

Latin, figura: form, shape, figure

figure, configure

fix: fasten

Latin, figere: fix

fixation, affix, prefix

flu, fluct, flux: drawing flow

Latin, fluere: to flow

fluid, influence, flush, fluently, fluctuate, influx

form: shape

Latin, formare: beauty, shape, form

format, form, conform, formulate, perform, formal

fract, frag, frai: break

Latin, frangere: to break

fraction, fracture, fragment, fragile, frail, frailty

gen, gin: to give birth, kind

Greek, genus, gener : stock, race

generate, genesis, genetics, gingerly

geo: earth

Greek, ge: earth

geography, geometry, geocentric, geology

grad, gress, gree: step, go, move

Latin, gradus: step

gradual, digress, degree

graph, graf: write, draw

Greek, graphe: write, scratch, carve

graphic, biography, autograph, photography, graft

her, hes: to stick

Latin, haerere: to stick

adhere, inherent, hereditary, cohesion, hesitate

jac, ject: to throw

Latin, jacere: to throw, to lie

ejaculate, adjacent, reject, eject, project, trajectory, inject

jug, junct, just: to join

Latin, jungere: to join

juggle, conjugal, junction, justify, adjust

labor: to hit something of somebody by hand

Latin, labor: to hit something of somebody by hand

laborious, labourer, laboratory

leag, leg: law

Latin, lex: law

legal, legitimate, league, college

lect, leg, lig: choose, gather, select, read

Latin, legere: to choose

collect, legible, eligible

loco, loc: place, area

Latin, locare: to place

locomotion, location, locally, locality, allocate

log: say, speech, word, reason, study

Greek, logos: speech, word, reason

logic, biology, logical

luc, lum, lust: light

Latin, lucare: shine, Latin, lumen: light, Latin, lustrare: light-up

translucent, illuminate, luster, illustrate

man: hand, make, do

Latin, manus: hand

manage, manuscript, manual, manifest

mem: recall, remember

Latin, memor: mindful

memory, memo, memento, memorable

ment: mind

Latin, mens: mind

mental, mention

micro: very small

Greek, mikros: Very small

microwave, microphone, microorganism, microscope

min: little, small

Latin, minuere: to lessen

minute, minor

mit, miss, mission: send

Latin, mittere: put, send

admit, permit, submit, admission, permission, submission

mobile, mob, mov, mot: move

Latin, mobilis, movere: move, movable

automobile, mobilize, mobilization, remove, movable, motor, motion

mune, muni: service

Latin, munis: Service

immune, community

nasc, nat, gnant, nai: to be born

Latin, gnasci to be born

nascent, native, pregnant, naïve

nom, nym: name

Latin, nomen, nomin: name

nominate, ignominious, pseudonym

nov: new

Latin, novus: new

novice, novel, renovate, innovate

oper : work

Latin, opus: work

operate, co-operate, opus

pat, pass: feel, suffer

Latin, pati: suffer

passion, patient, passion

path: feel

Greek, pathos: feeling

sympathy, pathology

ped: foot

Latin, pes, ped: foot

impede, pedal, pedestrian, centipede

pod: foot

Greek, pous: foot

podium, tripod, podiatry, antipode

pel, puls: drive, push

Latin, pellere: to drive, push, beat

compel, dispel, expel, impulse, compulsory, repulsive

pend, pens, pond: to hang, weigh

Latin, pendere: to hang, to weigh

pendant, suspend, append, pensive, pension, respond, despondent

phan, phen, fan, phant, fant: show, make visible

Greek, phainein: show

phantom, phenomenon, fantasy

philo, phil: love

Greek, philos: loving

philosopher, philanthropy

phon: sound

Greek, phone: voice, sound

phonetic, telephone, phonograph microphone, symphony

pict: paint, show, draw

Latin, pingere: to paint

picture, depict

port: carry

Latin, portare: carry

import, export, transport

pli, ply: fold

Latin, plicare: fold

implication, application, reply, ply

pon, pos, pound: put, place

Latin, ponere: to lay down, place

opponent, postpone, expose, impose, posture, expound, impound

psych: mind

Greek, psukhe: soul, spirit

psyche, psychiatry, psychology, psychosis

puter, pute: to think

Latin, putare: to think

computer, dispute, repute

quir, quis, quest, quer: seek, ask

Latin, quaerere: seek, ask

inquire, inquisitive, question, query

rupt: break

Latin, rumpere: break

rupture, interrupt, abrupt, disrupt,

sci, scio: to know

Latin, scire: to know

conscience, conscious, omniscient

scrib, scrip: write

Latin, scribere: to write

scribble, inscribe, describe, prescribe, manuscript, script

sent, sens: feel, think

Latin, sentire: feel

sentiment, consent, resent, dissent, sense, sensory

sequ, secut, sue: follow

Latin, sequi: to follow

sequence, consequence, sequel, prosecute, consecutive, ensue, pursue

sist: to withstand, make up

Latin, sistere: to make a stand

insist, assist, persist, resist

soci: to join, companions

Latin, socialis, socius: to join, a companion

sociable, sociable, sociology

sol: alone

Latin, solus: alone, single

solo, soliloquy, solitary, isolate

solv, solu, solut: loosen, explain

Latin, solvere: to loosen, release

solve, absolve, soluble, resolution, resolute, dissolute

spec, spic, spect: look

Latin, specere: look, look at

speculate, specimen, specific, aspect, inspect, respect

sphere: ball

Greek, sphaira: ball, sphere

sphere, stratosphere, hemisphere, spheroid

spir: breath, soul

Latin, spirare: breathe

respiration, spirit, conspire, inspire, aspire, expire

stab, stat: stand

Latin, stare: to stand

establish, stable, stature, stance

strain, strict, string: bind, pull

Latin, stringere: to bind or pull tight

restrain, constraint, constrict, strict, restrict, stringent

stru, struct, stroy: build

Latin, struere: to build

structure, instruct, obstruct, destruction, construct, destroy

tact, tang, tig, ting: touch

Latin, tangere: to touch

tactile, contact, tangible, contagious, contiguous, contingent

tele: far away

Greek, tele: end

telephone, telegraph, telegram, telescope, telecast, telepathy

tend, tent, tens: stretch

Latin, tendere: to stretch

extend, contend, pretend, extent, tension, pretence

tain, ten, tent, tin: hold, keep, have

Latin, tenere: to hold

retain, contain, abstain, pertain, tenure, detention, retentive, content, pertinent, continent

term: end, boundary, limit

Latin, terminus: limit, boundary

exterminate, terminal

terr: earth

Latin, terra: earth

territory, terrestrial

test: see, witness

Latin, testis: witness

testament, detest, testimony, attest, testify

therm: heat

Greek, therme: heat

thermometer, theorem, thermal, thermos bottle, thermostat

tor, tors, tort: twist

Latin, torquere: twist

torture, retort, extort, distort, contort, torsion, tortuous

tract, trai, treat: pull, draw

Latin, trahere: pull

attract, tractor, traction, extract, trailer, retreat, subtract

uni: one

Latin, unus: one

union, uniform, universal, unity, unanimous

vac: empty

Latin, vacare: to be empty

vacate, vacuum, evacuate, vacation, vacant

ven, vent: come

Latin, venire: to come

convene, venue, avenue, invent, convent, event, prevent

very, ver: true

Latin, venus: true

very, verdict, verity, verify

verb, verv: word

Latin, verbum: word

verbose, verbalize, verify

vers, vert: turn, change

Latin, vertere: to turn

diversion, reverse, versatile, convert, advertise, introvert

vid, vie, vis: see

Latin, videre: to see; Latin, videre: to separate

video, evident, review, preview, visible, revise, vision

vit, viv: live

Latin, vivere: to live

vitality, vital, vitamins, revive, survive, vivid

voc, voke: call

Latin, vocare: call, voice

vocation, invocation, advocate, vocal, evoke, provoke, revoke

volv, volt, vol: roll, turn

Latin, volvere: to roll, turn

revolve, revolt, evolution, voluble, voluminous

3.3 Affixes

Some words are formed with the help of affixes (a prefix or a suffix). They were originally words them selves but they are now letters or groups of letters added to words or to roots to create new words.

3.3.1 Prefix: The Frontal Element

Prefixes [pre (before) + fix (fasten) = fasten before] are groups of letters placed before words or roots. Prefixes modify or extend the meanings of words and roots. Following is the table that lists commonly used prefixes and sample vocabulary:

Prefixes Meaning Sample words

A-, Ac-, Ad-, Af-, Ag-, Al-, An-, Ap-, As-, At-

to, toward, near, in addition to

aside, afloat, accord, acclaim, adapt, admire, affix, affair, aggression, aggravate, alleviate, allow, annex, annihilate, apparition, appear, associate, attend, attain

A-, An-


amoral, asexual, apart, atheist, anaemic, anaesthetic

Ab-, Abs-

away from, off

abdicate, abduct, abnormal, absent, absolve, abstain

Acer-, Acid-, Acri-

bitter, sour, sharp, keen

acerbic, acid, acrid, acrimony



acute, acupuncture, accurate, acupressure



aftercare, afterbirth, afterwards, afternoon

Agri-, Agro-

pertaining to fields or soil

agriculture, agribusiness, agro industry

Ali-, Alter-


alias, alibi, alternate, altercation


on both sides

ambiguous, ambivalent, ambitious, ambiance


to walk

ambulatory, ambulance



anterior, antecedent, antedate



antiseptic, antidote, antibacterial, antibiotic



aquatic, aquaculture, aquamarine



automotive, autonomy, autocracy, autograph


weight, pressure

barograph, barometer, barbarian, barbecue



biannual, bicycle, biweekly, bilingual, binocular


on, around, over, about, make, cause, affect

befall, befriend, beside, become, before



bypass, byproduct, byline, bygone

Cat-, Cata-, Cath-

down, with

category, catalogue, cataract, catabolism, catholic, catharsis


on the side

cisalpine, cistern



circumstances, circumference, circumlocution, circumspect

Co-, Cog-, Col-, Com-, Con-, Cor-

together, with

coexist, coincident, cognate, cognition, collide, colleague, combat, combine, connect, conceive, correlate, correct



contradict, contraband, contravene



counter-attack, counterfoil, counterbalance


related to the Internet

cybercafé, cybercrime, cybernetic


to do the opposite, down (negative)

debar, declare, decline, devaluate, debase, descend



demigod, demitasse, demiparadise

Di-, Dia-, Dif-, Dis-

apart, separate, two, opposite, not

diphthong, dioxide, dialogue, diagonal, differ, diffuse, dissuade, disable, dissolve, disarm

Deci-, Deca-

ten, ten times

decimate, decimal, decennial, decade

Dec-, Dign-


decent, decease, dignity, dignitary



duplicate, duplex


related to electronic

e-mail, e-ticket, e-commerce


out, out of, from

expel, exclude, exhale, express, extort



ex-captain, ex-president

En-, Em-

put into

enclose, enact, encircle, empower, emission


upon, beside, over

epilogue, epicure, epitome, epicentre, epiglottis



equitable, equivalent, equilibrium, equilateral


form well, easily

eulogize, euthanasia, euphoria, eucalyptus



extraordinary, extra-large, extracurricular, extraterrestrial


away, off

forbid, forbear, forward, forswear, forlorn



foretell, forecast, forehead, foresight

Hecto-, Hect-


hectogram, hectare



heptagon, heptameter



homonym, homogeneous



heterodox, heterogeneous



hexagon, hexameter, hexagram



hyperactive, hypersensitive, hyperbole, hypercorrect


too little

hypothermia, hypothesis, hypodermic, hypothetical

Il-, Im-, In-, Ir

not, in

illiterate, illegible, imperfect, impossible, inaction, insecure, irresistible, irresponsible



interject, intermingle



intramuscular, intravenous


into, within, inward

introvert, introspection, introduce



infrared, infrastructure



kilometre, kilogram

Mal-, Male-, Mali-

bad, ill, evil

malfunction, malnutrition, malefactor, malevolent, malignant, malicious



megastar, megaship, megawatt, megaphone



metaphysics, metabolism, metaphor, metamorphosis



midday, mid-air, mid-path



millisecond, milligram, millibar



misunderstand, misbehave, misspell, mistake



mini bus, mini skirt



monologue, monotheism, monomania



multicolour, multistorey, multifacet



neophyte, neo-classical



nonsense, non-vegetarian, nonstop, nontoxic

Ob-, Oc-, Of-, Op-

toward, against, in the way

obtain, object, obtuse, occupy, oculist, offend, offence, oppose, oppress

Octo-, Oct-


octopus, octane, octet



omniscient, omnipotent, omnipresent



outlive, outgrow, outlook, output



overactive, overwork, overdo, overact



panacea, pandemonium, pantheon, pan-american



paragraph, paradox

Penta-, Pent-


pentagon, pentacle


through, by, utterly, badly

persecute, perpetual, perfect



polygamy, polythene, polyglot, polytechnic



postpone, postman, postwar, postscript



prepare, precept, precaution, prefix



periscope, perigee

Quadri-, Quadr-


quadrilateral, quadrille, quadruple


for, forward

propose, project, provide, pronoun, profess



pseudonym, pseudo-classical


back, again

revive, regain, refresh, rebel, revise



retrospect, retroactive, retrograde


apart, move away from

separate, secede, secure, select


for oneself

self-help, self-interest, self-confidence



semiconductor, semicircle, semidetached

Sub-, Suc-, Suf-, Sup-, Sur-, Sus-, Sug-, Sum-

under, beneath, near, from below, secretly, above, up, secondary

submarine, subside, succeed, succumb, suffice, suffocate, support, suppose, survive, surface, sustain, suspect, suggest, suggestible, summon, summarize

Super-, sur

over, above

superman, superfast, supernatural, superfine, surcharge, surcoat



suprasegmental, supranational

Syn-, Sym-

together, at the same time

synchronize, synonym, sympathy, symmetry


across, beyond, change

transform, transaction, transport, transmit, transparent



tricolour, tricycle, triangle


not, against, opposite

uncommon, unnatural, undo, unwind


too little

underdog, underestimate, underpaid, underwater

Uni-, Un-

one, single

unity, union, universe, unilateral, unanimous



ultramodern, ultrahigh, ultrasound, ultraviolet



vice-president, vice-chancellor


against, away

withhold, withdraw, withstand

3.3.2 Suffix: The Tail to Modify Meaning

A suffix is a letter or groups of letters attached to the ends of roots, words or word groups and serve a grammatical function. A suffix can indicate the part of speech (noun, verb, adjective, adverb) the word belongs to. It can also modify and extend the meaning of the word, for example, the –al suffix makes an adjective from a noun such as ‘national’ and ‘structural.’ The following suffixes are grouped beneath the grammatical function they perform:

1. Nouns:    Nouns perform the function of naming. Nouns name persons, places animals or things, as well as groups, ideas and qualities. In a sentence, nouns can be subjects, objects, or appositives.

Suffix Meaning Sample words

-acy, -cy

state or quality

privacy, supremacy, policy, conspiracy

-ade, -age

activity, or result of action

barricade, cascade, brigade mortgage, bondage, leakage


action, result of action

rotational, chemical, arrival, functional

-ance, -ence

action, state, quality or process

fragrance, elegance, diligence, precedence

-ancy, -ency

state, quality or capacity

vacancy, infancy, proficiency, frequency

-ant, -ent

an agent, full of

servant, applicant, independent, pendent


resembling, related to

library, granary, salary, honorary

-art, -ard


hand cart, bullock cart, drunkard, wizard, steward, billiard

-ate, -ee, -ey, -y

persons, agents

candidate, employee, payee, attorney, journey, fury, query, economy, society


action, resulting state

specialization, qualification, imagination, conversation

-crat-, -cracy


autocrat, technocrat, theocracy, democracy


place, state of being

wisdom, boredom, freedom, seldom

-eer, -ier

person concerned with or described as

mountaineer, engineer, barrier, carrier, brigadier

-er, -or, -ar

one who

porter, painter, inferior, doctor, beggar, circular


showing small objects, animals, etc.

cockerel, mongrel

-ery, -ry

class or kind

crockery, stationery, dowry, pantry


denoting females

actress, poetess, hostess, lioness

-et, -ette

denoting small objects, places, etc.

coronet, packet, cigarette, etiquette


an amount or quantity that fills

tearful, spoonful, dreadful, mouthful


condition or state

manhood, falsehood


names, diseases

phobia, mania

-ain, -an, -en, -on

referring to persons, agents

captain, villain, pagan, artisan, warden, maiden, sexton, deacon


art of healing


-ic, ics, -ique

related to the arts and sciences

artistic, realistic, economics, politics, physique, critique

-ice, -icle

small objects, qualities, feelings, etc.

malice, cowardice, article, particle


state, condition

birdie, girlie


material made for, activity, result of an activity

flooring, building, running, swimming


condition or action

abduction, preposition


doctrine, belief, action or conduct

socialism, secularism, humanism, heroism


person or member

plagiarist, dentist, artist, sadist


product or part

graphite, granite


range of something

solitude, altitude, magnitude, attitude

-ity, -ty

state or quality

lucidity, nativity, activity, frugality, novelty, honesty, modesty



protective, active, secretive, creative


very small

booklet, pamphlet, owlet, rivulet


condition or result

document, derangement, amusement, monument


persons, agents

war monger, fish monger, iron monger, gossip monger


denoting condition, state, system

matrimony, harmony, ceremony, economy


state, condition, quality

kindness, goodness, greatness, sharpness


referring to small things, animals

bullock, hillock, paddock


place for, serves for

territory, ivory, victory


denoting feeling, thought

hatred, kindred, shepherd


status, condition

relationship, citizenship, ownership, fellowship

-ssion, -sion

denoting action or state

admission, commission, succession, tension, supervision


a person who is connected with or has the quality of

youngster, spinster, trickster, gangster


the action or process of

warmth, wealth, health, growth

-ure,- eur, -our

act, condition, process, function

exposure, enclosure, grandeur, tenure, labour, glamour


persons, agents

playwright, cartwright

2. Verbs:    Verbs make statements about nouns, ask questions, give commands, or show states of being. Verbs can be active or passive. Verbs also show tense or time of action.

Suffix Meaning Sample words

-ate, -ite

cause to be

situate, associate, stimulate, dedicate, expedite, ignite

-cogn, -gnos

to know

recognize, diagnose


past tense

achieved, created, nominated, selected


to cause to become

moisten, shorten, lighten, soften

-er, -or


wonder, batter, clamour, tailor



specify, clarify, glorify, signify


present participle

doing, swimming, shouting, sealing



humanize, specialize, realize, utilize, popularize



procure, secure, endure, allure

3. Adjectives:    Adjectives describe or modify nouns. Adjectives tell the reader more about the noun used in the sentence.

Suffix Meaning Sample words

-able, -ible, -ble, -bile

worth, ability

capable, drinkable, edible, incredible, visible, soluble, illegible, mobile, profile, futile

-al, -ial, -ical

quality, relation

functional, communal, structural, territorial, menial, categorical, illogical

-ant, -ent, -ient

kind of agent, indication

important, triumphant, dependent, ardent, convenient, transient

-ar, -ary

resembling, related to

spectacular, familiar, unitary, sanitary


having the quality

terraced, dreaded, messed, blessed



silken, forbidden, molten, frozen



bigger, better, flicker, dimmer


related to

Chinese, Portuguese


like to

picturesque, grotesque



brightest, sharpest, hardest, quickest


having, giving, marked by

beautiful, colourful, fanciful, dutiful

-ic, -ique

quality, relation

generic, prolific, antique, unique


having the qualities of

textile, fertile


belonging to

masculine, feminine, divine, feline


having the character of

feverish, sheepish, newish, reddish

-ive, -ative, -itive

having the quality of

festive, co-operative, creative, sensitive


without, missing

motionless, speechless, restless, tireless, childless


similar to, characteristic of

child-like, war-like, woman-like, man-like



innermost, foremost, utmost, topmost


denoting place

sensory, advisory, cursory, transitory

-ous, -eous, -ose, -ious

having the quality of, relating to

adventurous, courageous, verbose, fractious


a group of

troublesome, tiresome, wearisome, wholesome


in ordinal number

fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth

-luent, -ulent, -lent,

full of

affluent, flatulent, fluent, violent, virulent


manner, respect

likewise, lengthwise, clockwise, crosswise


marked by, having

hungry, sandy, healthy, heavy

4. Adverbs:    Adverbs describe verbs, adjectives and other adverbs.

Suffix Meaning Sample words


showing frequency

once, twice, thrice


showing position

amidst, amongst, co-exist


in a manner of, marked by

Threefold, manifold


in the manner of

fluently, quietly, nicely, timely


in the direction

hither, thither, whither


in a direction or manner

homeward, inward, onward, outward


in the manner of, with regard to

clockwise, lengthwise, crosswise, timewise


  1. Form words using the following prefixes:
    Bi……, intra….., mega….., micro……., ill…., in……., alter…., anti……, auto….., cata…., ambi…., counter……, cyber…., demi…., epi…., fore…., hyper…., homo…, intro…., infra…., milli…., mono…., omni…, para…, pseudo…., retro….., supra…., sym…., with…., ultra…., trans…., tri….


  2. Form words using the following suffixes:
    ….acy, ….ade, ….ant, …art, ….ation, ….crat, ….eer, ….erel, …ory, ….ette, …ain, ..ique, ….icle, …..ism, ….mony, …monger, …ster, …th, …ure, …ster, ….eur, …ment, ….wright, …ible, …like, …..most, …..some, …..y, ….fold, ….ward, …less,… ly


  3. Form words using the following bases:
    Areo, arch, aster, biblio, corpus, electrum, facere, gradus, logos, manus, mittere, mobilis, pathos, philos, phone, tele, therme